Rules of Civil Procedure

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Rule 1. General provisions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2011

Scope of rules. These rules govern the procedure in the courts of the state of Utah in all actions of a civil nature, whether cognizable at law or in equity, and in all statutory proceedings, except as governed by other rules promulgated by this court or statutes enacted by the Legislature and except as stated in Rule 81. They shall be liberally construed and applied to achieve the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action. These rules govern all actions brought after they take effect and all further proceedings in actions then pending. If, in the opinion of the court, applying a rule in an action pending when the rule takes effect would not be feasible or would be unjust, the former procedure applies.


Advisory Committee Notes

These rules apply to court commissioners to the same extent as to judges.

A primary purpose of the 2011 amendments is to give effect to the long-standing but often overlooked directive in Rule 1 that the Rules of Civil Procedure should be construed and applied to achieve "the just, speedy and inexpensive determination of every action." The amendments serve this purpose by limiting parties to discovery that is proportional to the stakes of the litigation, curbing excessive expert discovery, and requiring the early disclosure of documents, witnesses and evidence that a party intends to offer in its case-in-chief. The committee's purpose is to restore balance to the goals of Rule 1, so that a just resolution is not achieved at the expense of speedy and inexpensive resolutions, and greater access to the justice system can be afforded to all members of society.

Due to the significant changes in the discovery rules, the Supreme Court order adopting the 2011 amendments makes them effective only as to cases filed on or after the effective date, November 1, 2011, unless otherwise agreed to by the parties or ordered by the court.

 

 

Rule 2. One form of action.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

There shall be one form of action to be known as “civil action.”

 

 

Rule 3. Commencement of action.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) How commenced. A civil action is commenced (1) by filing a complaint with the court, or (2) by service of a summons together with a copy of the complaint in accordance with Rule 4. If the action is commenced by the service of a summons and a copy of the complaint, then the complaint, the summons and proof of service, must be filed within ten days of such service. If, in a case commenced under paragraph (a)(2) of this rule, the complaint, summons and proof of service are not filed within ten days of service, the action commenced shall be deemed dismissed and the court shall have no further jurisdiction thereof. If a check or other form of payment tendered as a filing fee is dishonored, the party shall pay the fee by cash or cashier's check within 10 days after notification by the court. Dishonor of a check or other form of payment does not affect the validity of the filing, but may be grounds for such sanctions as the court deems appropriate, which may include dismissal of the action and the award of costs and attorney fees.

(b) Time of jurisdiction. The court shall have jurisdiction from the time of filing of the complaint or service of the summons and a copy of the complaint.


Advisory Committee Notes

Rule 3 constitutes a significant change from the prior rule. The rule retains service of the ten-day summons as one of two means to commence an action, but the rule requires that the summons together with a copy of the complaint be served on the defendant pursuant to Rule 4. In so doing, the rule eliminates the requirement that a copy of the complaint be deposited with the clerk for the defendant whose address is unknown. The changes in Rule 3 must be read and should be interpreted in conjunction with coordinate changes in Rule 4 and with a change in Rule 12(a) that begins the running of the defendant's 20-day response time from the service of the summons and complaint.

Paragraph (a). This paragraph eliminates the requirement that a copy of the complaint be deposited with the clerk for the defendant whose address is unknown. Paragraph (b) of the former rule, which permitted the plaintiff to deposit copies of the complaint with the clerk for defendants not otherwise served with a copy at the time of the service of the summons, has also been eliminated. The rule requires, in effect, that both the summons and the complaint be served pursuant to Rule 4. Under a coordinate change in Rule 12(a), the defendant's time for answering or otherwise responding to the complaint does not begin to run until service of the summons and complaint pursuant to Rule 4.

Paragraph (b). This paragraph is substantially identical to paragraph (c) of the former rule.

 

 

Rule 4. Process.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2023

(a) Signing of summons. The summons must be signed and issued by the plaintiff or the plaintiff's attorney. Separate summonses may be signed and issued.

(b) Time of service. Unless the summons and complaint are accepted, a copy of the summons and complaint in an action commenced under Rule 3(a)(1) must be served no later than 120 days after the complaint is filed, unless the court orders a different period under Rule 6. If the summons and complaint are not timely served, the action against the unserved defendant may be dismissed without prejudice on motion of any party or on the court's own initiative.

(c) Contents of summons.

(1) The summons must:

(A) contain the name and address of the court, the names of the parties to the action, and the county in which it is brought;

(B) be directed to the defendant;

(C) state the name, address and telephone number of the plaintiff's attorney, if any, and otherwise the plaintiff's address and telephone number;

(D) state the time within which the defendant is required to answer the complaint in writing;

(E) notify the defendant that in case of failure to answer in writing, judgment by default may be entered against the defendant;

(F) state either that the complaint is on file with the court or that the complaint will be filed with the court within 10 days after service; and

(G) include the bilingual notice set forth in the form summons approved by the Utah Judicial Council.

(2) If the action is commenced under Rule 3(a)(2), the summons must also:

(A) state that the defendant need not answer if the complaint is not filed within 10 days after service; and

(B) state the telephone number of the clerk of the court where the defendant may call at least 14 days after service to determine if the complaint has been filed.

(3) If service is by publication, the summons must also briefly state the subject matter and the sum of money or other relief demanded, and that the complaint is on file with the court.

(d) Methods of service. The summons and complaint may be served in any state or judicial district of the United States. Unless service is accepted, service of the summons and complaint must be by one of the following methods:

(1) Personal service. The summons and complaint may be served by any person 18 years of age or older at the time of service and not a party to the action or a party's attorney. If the person to be served refuses to accept a copy of the summons and complaint, service is sufficient if the person serving them states the name of the process and offers to deliver them. Personal service must be made as follows:

(A) Upon any individual other than one covered by paragraphs (d)(1)(B), (d)(1)(C) or (d)(1)(D), by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the individual personally, or by leaving them at the individual's dwelling house or usual place of abode with a person of suitable age and discretion who resides there, or by delivering them to an agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive process;

(B) Upon a minor under 14 years old by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to a parent or guardian of the minor or, if none can be found within the state, then to any person having the care and control of the minor, or with whom the minor resides, or by whom the minor is employed;

(C) Upon an individual judicially declared to be incapacitated, of unsound mind, or incapable of conducting the individual’s own affairs, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the individual and to the guardian or conservator of the individual if one has been appointed; the individual’s legal representative if one has been appointed, and, in the absence of a guardian, conservator, or legal representative, to the person, if any, who has care, custody, or control of the individual;

(D) Upon an individual incarcerated or committed at a facility operated by the state or any of its political subdivisions, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the individual personally, to the person who has the care, custody, or control of the individual, or to that person's designee or to the guardian or conservator of the individual if one has been appointed. The person to whom the summons and complaint are delivered must promptly deliver them to the individual;

(E) Upon a corporation not otherwise provided for in this rule, a limited liability company, a partnership, or an unincorporated association subject to suit under a common name, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to an officer, a managing or general agent, or other agent authorized by appointment or law to receive process and by also mailing a copy of the summons and complaint to the defendant, if the agent is one authorized by statute to receive process and the statute so requires. If no officer or agent can be found within the state, and the defendant has, or advertises or holds itself out as having, a place of business within the state or elsewhere, or does business within this state or elsewhere, then upon the person in charge of the place of business;

(F) Upon an incorporated city or town, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint as required by statute, or in the absence of a controlling statute, to the recorder;

(G) Upon a county, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint as required by statute, or in the absence of a controlling statute, to the county clerk;

(H) Upon a school district or board of education, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint as required by statute, or in the absence of a controlling statute, to the superintendent or administrator of the board;

(I) Upon an irrigation or drainage district, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint as required by statute, or in the absence of a controlling statute, to the president or secretary of its board;

(J) Upon the state of Utah or its department or agency by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the attorney general and any other person or agency required by statute to be served; and

(K) Upon a public board, commission or body by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint as required by statute, or in the absence of a controlling statute, to any member of its governing board, or to its executive employee or secretary.

(2) Service by mail or commercial courier service.

(A) The summons and complaint may be served upon an individual other than one covered by paragraphs (d)(1)(B) or (d)(1)(C) by mail or commercial courier service in any state or judicial district of the United States provided the defendant signs a document indicating receipt.

(B) The summons and complaint may be served upon an entity covered by paragraphs (d)(1)(E) through (d)(1)(I) by mail or commercial courier service in any state or judicial district of the United States provided defendant's agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process signs a document indicating receipt.

(C) Service by mail or commercial courier service shall be complete on the date the receipt is signed as provided by this rule.

(3) Acceptance of service.

(A) Duty to avoid expenses. All parties have a duty to avoid unnecessary expenses of serving the summons and complaint.

(B) Acceptance of service by party. Unless the person to be served is a minor under 14 years old or an individual judicially declared to be incapacitated, of unsound mind, or incapable of conducting the individual’s own affairs, a party may accept service of a summons and complaint by signing a document that acknowledges receipt of the summons and complaint.

(i) Content of proof of electronic acceptance. If acceptance is obtained electronically, the proof of acceptance must demonstrate on its face that the electronic signature is attributable to the party accepting service and was voluntarily executed by the party. The proof of acceptance must demonstrate that the party received readable copies of the summons and complaint prior to signing the acceptance of service.

(ii) Duty to avoid deception. A request to accept service must not be deceptive, including stating or implying that the request to accept service originates with a public servant, peace officer, court, or official government agency. A violation of this paragraph may nullify the acceptance of service and could subject the person to criminal penalties under applicable Utah law.

(C) Acceptance of service by attorney for party. An attorney may accept service of a summons and complaint on behalf of the attorney’s client by signing a document that acknowledges receipt of the summons and complaint.

(D) Effect of acceptance, proof of acceptance. A person who accepts service of the summons and complaint retains all defenses and objections, except for adequacy of service. Service is effective on the date of the acceptance. Filing the acceptance of service with the court constitutes proof of service under Rule 4(e).

(4) Service in a foreign country. Service in a foreign country must be made as follows:

(A) by any internationally agreed means reasonably calculated to give notice, such as those means authorized by the Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents;

(B) if there is no internationally agreed means of service or the applicable international agreement allows other means of service, provided that service is reasonably calculated to give notice:

(i) in the manner prescribed by the law of the foreign country for service in that country in an action in any of its courts of general jurisdiction;

(ii) as directed by the foreign authority in response to a letter of request issued by the court; or

(iii) unless prohibited by the law of the foreign country, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the individual personally or by any form of mail requiring a signed receipt, addressed and dispatched by the clerk of the court to the party to be served; or

(C) by other means not prohibited by international agreement as may be directed by the court.

(5) Other service.

(A) If the identity or whereabouts of the person to be served are unknown and cannot be ascertained through reasonable diligence, if service upon all of the individual parties is impracticable under the circumstances, or if there is good cause to believe that the person to be served is avoiding service, the party seeking service may file a motion to allow service by some other means. An affidavit or declaration supporting the motion must set forth the efforts made to identify, locate, and serve the party, or the circumstances that make it impracticable to serve all of the individual parties.

(B) If the motion is granted, the court will order service of the complaint and summons by means reasonably calculated, under all the circumstances, to apprise the named parties of the action. The court's order must specify the content of the process to be served and the event upon which service is complete. Unless service is by publication, a copy of the court's order must be served with the process specified by the court.

(C) If the summons is required to be published, the court, upon the request of the party applying for service by other means, must designate a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which publication is required.

(e) Proof of service.

(1) The person effecting service must file proof of service stating the date, place, and manner of service, including a copy of the summons. If service is made by a person other than by an attorney, sheriff, constable, United States Marshal, or by the sheriff’s, constable’s or marshal's deputy, the proof of service must be by affidavit or unsworn declaration as described in Title 78B, Chapter 18a, Uniform Unsworn Declarations Act.

(2) Proof of service in a foreign country must be made as prescribed in these rules for service within this state, or by the law of the foreign country, or by order of the court.

(3) When service is made pursuant to paragraph(d)(4)(C), proof of service must include a receipt signed by the addressee or other evidence of delivery to the addressee satisfactory to the court.

(4) Failure to file proof of service does not affect the validity of the service. The court may allow proof of service to be amended.

 

 

Rule 5. Service and filing of pleadings and other papers.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 1/1/2021

(a) When service is required.

(1) Papers that must be served. Except as otherwise provided in these rules or as otherwise directed by the court, the following papers must be served on every party:

(A) a judgment;

(B) an order that states it must be served;

(C) a pleading after the original complaint;

(D) a paper relating to disclosure or discovery;

(E) a paper filed with the court other than a motion that may be heard ex parte; and

(F) a written notice, appearance, demand, offer of judgment, or similar paper.

(2) Serving parties in default. No service is required on a party who is in default except that:

(A) a party in default must be served as ordered by the court;

(B) a party in default for any reason other than for failure to appear must be served as provided in paragraph (a)(1);

(C) a party in default for any reason must be served with notice of any hearing to determine the amount of damages to be entered against the defaulting party;

(D) a party in default for any reason must be served with notice of entry of judgment under Rule 58A(g); and

(E) a party in default for any reason must be served under Rule 4 with pleadings asserting new or additional claims for relief against the party.

(3) Service in actions begun by seizing property. If an action is begun by seizing property and no person is or need be named as defendant, any service required before the filing of an answer, claim or appearance must be made upon the person who had custody or possession of the property when it was seized.

(b) How service is made.

(1) Whom to serve. If a party is represented by an attorney, a paper served under this rule must be served upon the attorney unless the court orders service upon the party. Service must be made upon the attorney and the party if:

(A) an attorney has filed a Notice of Limited Appearance under Rule 75 and the papers being served relate to a matter within the scope of the Notice; or

(B) a final judgment has been entered in the action and more than 90 days has elapsed from the date a paper was last served on the attorney.

(2) When to serve. If a hearing is scheduled 7 days or less from the date of service, a party must serve a paper related to the hearing by the method most likely to be promptly received. Otherwise, a paper that is filed with the court must be served before or on the same day that it is filed.

(3) Methods of service. A paper is served under this rule by:

(A) except in the juvenile court, submitting it for electronic filing, or the court submitting it to the electronic filing service provider, if the person being served has an electronic filing account;

(B) emailing it to

(i) the most recent email address provided by the person to the court under Rule 10(a)(3) or Rule 76, or

(ii) to the email address on file with the Utah State Bar;

(C) mailing it to the person’s last known address;

(D) handing it to the person;

(E) leaving it at the person’s office with a person in charge or, if no one is in charge, leaving it in a receptacle intended for receiving deliveries or in a conspicuous place;

(F) leaving it at the person’s dwelling house or usual place of abode with a person of suitable age and discretion who resides there; or

(G) any other method agreed to in writing by the parties.

(4) When service is effective. Service by mail or electronic means is complete upon sending.

(5) Who serves. Unless otherwise directed by the court or these rules:

(A) every paper required to be served must be served by the party preparing it; and

(B) every paper prepared by the court will be served by the court.

(c) Serving numerous defendants. If an action involves an unusually large number of defendants, the court, upon motion or its own initiative, may order that:

(1) a defendant’s pleadings and replies to them do not need to be served on the other defendants;

(2) any cross-claim, counterclaim avoidance or affirmative defense in a defendant’s pleadings and replies to them are deemed denied or avoided by all other parties;

(3) filing a defendant’s pleadings and serving them on the plaintiff constitutes notice of them to all other parties; and

(4) a copy of the order must be served upon the parties.

(d) Certificate of service. A paper required by this rule to be served, including electronically filed papers, must include a signed certificate of service showing the name of the document served, the date and manner of service and on whom it was served. Except in the juvenile court, this paragraph does not apply to papers required to be served under paragraph (b)(5)(B)when service to all parties is made under paragraph (b)(3)(A).

(e) Filing. Except as provided in Rule 7(j) and Rule 26(f), all papers after the complaint that are required to be served must be filed with the court. Parties with an electronic filing account must file a paper electronically. A party without an electronic filing account may file a paper by delivering it to the clerk of the court or to a judge of the court. Filing is complete upon the earliest of acceptance by the electronic filing system, the clerk of court or the judge.

(f) Filing an affidavit or declaration.If a person files an affidavit or declaration, the filer may:

(1) electronically file the original affidavit with a notary acknowledgment as provided by Utah Code Section 46-1-16(7);

(2) electronically file a scanned image of the affidavit or declaration;

(3) electronically file the affidavit or declaration with a conformed signature; or

(4) if the filer does not have an electronic filing account, present the original affidavit or declaration to the clerk of the court, and the clerk will electronically file a scanned image and return the original to the filer.

The filer must keep an original affidavit or declaration of anyone other than the filer safe and available for inspection upon request until the action is concluded, including any appeal or until the time in which to appeal has expired.


Advisory Committee Notes

Note adopted 2015

Under paragraph (b)(3)(A), electronically filing a document has the effect of serving the document on lawyers who have an e‑filing account. (Lawyers representing parties in the district court are required to have an account and electronically file documents. Code of Judicial Administration Rule 4‑503.) The 2015 amendment excepts from this provision documents electronically filed in juvenile court.

Although electronic filing in the juvenile court presents to the parties the documents that have been filed, the juvenile court e‑filing application (CARE), unlike that in the district court, does not deliver an email alerting the party to that fact. The Board of Juvenile Court Judges and the Advisory Committee on the Rules of Juvenile Procedure believe this difference renders electronic filing alone insufficient notice of a document having been filed. So in the juvenile court, a party electronically filing a document must serve that document by one of the other permitted methods.

 

 

Rule 6. Time.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2024

(a) Computing time. The following rules apply in computing any time period specified in these rules, any local rule or court order, or in any statute that does not specify a method of computing time.

(1) When the period is stated in days or a longer unit of time:

(A) exclude the day of the event that triggers the period;

(B) count every day, including intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays; and

(C) include the last day of the period, but if the last day is a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, the period continues to run until the end of the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday.

(2) When the period is stated in hours:

(A) begin counting immediately on the occurrence of the event that triggers the period;

(B) count every hour, including hours during intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays; and

(C) if the period would end on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, the period continues to run until the same time on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.

(3) Unless the court orders otherwise, if the clerk’s office is inaccessible:

(A) on the last day for filing under Rule 6(a)(1), then the time for filing is extended to the first accessible day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday; or

(B) during the last hour for filing under Rule 6(a)(2), then the time for filing is extended to the same time on the first accessible day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.

(4) Unless a different time is set by a statute or court order, filing on the last day means:

(A) for electronic filing, before midnight; and

(B) for filing by other means, the filing must be made before the clerk’s office is scheduled to close.

(5) The “next day” is determined by continuing to count forward when the period is measured after an event and backward when measured before an event.

(6) “Legal holiday” means the day for observing:

(A) New Year's Day;

(B) Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day;

(C) Washington and Lincoln Day;

(D) Memorial Day;

(E) Juneteenth National Freedom Day (as recognized by the Utah Legislature as the third Monday of June);

(F) Independence Day;

(G) Pioneer Day;

(H)Labor Day;

(I) Columbus Day;

(J) Veterans' Day;

(K)Thanksgiving Day;

(L) Christmas; and

(M) any day designated by the Governor or Legislature as a legal holiday.

(b) Extending time.

(1) When an act may or must be done within a specified time, the court may, for good cause, extend the time:

(A) with or without motion or notice if the court acts, or if a request is made, before the original time or its extension expires; or

(B) on motion made after the time has expired if the party failed to act because of excusable neglect.

(2) A court must not extend the time to act under Rules 50(b) and (d),52(b),59(b), (d) and (e), and 60(c).

(c) Additional time after service by mail. When a party may or must act within a specified time after service and service is made exclusively by mail under Rule 5(b)(3)(C)(i), 7 days are added after the period would otherwise expire under paragraph (a).

(d) Response time for an unrepresented party. When a party is not represented by an attorney, does not have an electronic filing account, and may or must act within a specified time after the filing of a paper, the period of time within which the party may or must act is counted from the service date and not the filing date of the paper.

(e) Filing or service by inmate.

(1) For purposes of Rule 45(i) and this paragraph (e), an inmate is a person confined to an institution or committed to a place of legal confinement.

(2) Papers filed or served by an inmate are timely filed or served if they are deposited in the institution’s internal mail system on or before the last day for filing or service. Timely filing or service may be shown by a contemporaneously filed notarized statement or written declaration setting forth the date of deposit and stating that first-class postage has been, or is being, prepaid, or that the inmate has complied with any applicable requirements for legal mail set by the institution. Response time will be calculated from the date the papers are received by the court, or for papers served on parties that do not need to be filed with the court, the postmark date the papers were deposited in U.S. mail.

(3) The provisions of paragraph (e)(2) do not apply to service of process, which is governed by Rule 4.

 

 

Rule 7. Pleadings allowed; motions, memoranda, hearings, orders.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2023

(a) Pleadings. Only these pleadings are allowed:

(1) a complaint;

(2) an answer to a complaint;

(3) an answer to a counterclaim designated as a counterclaim;

(4) an answer to a crossclaim;

(5) a third‑party complaint;

(6) an answer to a third‑party complaint; and

(7) a reply to an answer if ordered by the court.

(b) Motions. A request for an order must be made by motion. The motion must be in writing unless made during a hearing or trial, must state the relief requested, and must state the grounds for the relief requested. Except for the following, a motion must be made in accordance with this rule.

(1) A motion, other than a motion described in paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(3) or (b)(4), made in proceedings before a court commissioner must follow Rule 101.

(2) A request under Rule 26 for extraordinary discovery must follow Rule 37(a).

(3) A request under Rule 37 for a protective order or for an order compelling disclosure or discovery—but not a motion for sanctions—must follow Rule 37(a).

(4) A request under Rule 45 to quash a subpoena must follow Rule 37(a).

(5) A motion for summary judgment must follow the procedures of this rule as supplemented by the requirements of Rule 56.

(c) Name and content of motion.

(1) The rules governing captions and other matters of form in pleadings apply to motions and other papers.

(2) Caution language. For all dispositive motions, the motion must include the following caution language at the top right corner of the first page, in bold type: This motion requires you to respond. Please see the Notice to Responding Party.

(3) Bilingual notice. All motions must include or attach the bilingual Notice to Responding Party approved by the Judicial Council.

(4) Failure to include caution language and notice. Failure to include the caution language in paragraph (c)(2) or the bilingual notice in paragraph (c)(3) may be grounds to continue the hearing on the motion, or may provide the non-moving party with a basis under Rule 60(b) for excusable neglect to set aside the order resulting from the motion. Parties may opt out of receiving the notices set forth in paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) while represented by counsel.

(5) Title of motion. The moving party must title the motion substantially as: “Motion [short phrase describing the relief requested].”

(6) Contents of motion. The motion must include the supporting memorandum. The motion must include under appropriate headings and in the following order:

(A) a concise statement of the relief requested and the grounds for the relief requested; and

(B) one or more sections that include a concise statement of the relevant facts claimed by the moving party and argument citing authority for the relief requested.

(7) If the moving party cites documents, interrogatory answers, deposition testimony, or other discovery materials, relevant portions of those materials must be attached to or submitted with the motion.

(d) Name and content of memorandum opposing the motion.

(1) A nonmoving party may file a memorandum opposing the motion within 14 days after the motion is filed. The nonmoving party must title the memorandum substantially as: “Memorandum opposing motion [short phrase describing the relief requested].” The memorandum must include under appropriate headings and in the following order:

(A) a concise statement of the party’s preferred disposition of the motion and the grounds supporting that disposition;

(B) one or more sections that include a concise statement of the relevant facts claimed by the nonmoving party and argument citing authority for that disposition; and

(C) objections to evidence in the motion, citing authority for the objection.

(2) If the non-moving party cites documents, interrogatory answers, deposition testimony, or other discovery materials, relevant portions of those materials must be attached to or submitted with the memorandum.

(e) Name and content of reply memorandum.

(1) Within 7 days after the memorandum opposing the motion is filed, the moving party may file a reply memorandum, which must be limited to rebuttal of new matters raised in the memorandum opposing the motion. The moving party must title the memorandum substantially as “Reply memorandum supporting motion [short phrase describing the relief requested].” The memorandum must include under appropriate headings and in the following order:

(A) a concise statement of the new matter raised in the memorandum opposing the motion;

(B) one or more sections that include a concise statement of the relevant facts claimed by the moving party not previously set forth that respond to the opposing party’s statement of facts and argument citing authority rebutting the new matter;

(C) objections to evidence in the memorandum opposing the motion, citing authority for the objection; and

(D) response to objections made in the memorandum opposing the motion, citing authority for the response.

(2) If the moving party cites documents, interrogatory answers, deposition testimony, or other discovery materials, relevant portions of those materials must be attached to or submitted with the memorandum.

(f) Objection to evidence in the reply memorandum; response. If the reply memorandum includes an objection to evidence, the nonmoving party may file a response to the objection no later than 7 days after the reply memorandum is filed. If the reply memorandum includes evidence not previously set forth, the nonmoving party may file an objection to the evidence no later than 7 days after the reply memorandum is filed, and the moving party may file a response to the objection no later than 7 days after the objection is filed.

(g) Request to submit for decision. When briefing is complete or the time for briefing has expired, either party may file a “Request to Submit for Decision,” but, if no party files a request, the motion will not be submitted for decision. The request to submit for decision must state whether a hearing has been requested and the dates on which the following documents were filed:

(1) the motion;

(2) the memorandum opposing the motion, if any;

(3) the reply memorandum, if any; and

(4) the response to objections in the reply memorandum, if any.

(h) Hearings. The court may hold a hearing on any motion. A party may request a hearing in the motion, in a memorandum or in the request to submit for decision. A request for hearing must be separately identified in the caption of the document containing the request. The court must grant a request for a hearing on a motion under Rule 56 or a motion that would dispose of the action or any claim or defense in the action unless the court finds that the motion or opposition to the motion is frivolous or the issue has been authoritatively decided. A motion hearing may be held remotely, consistent with the safeguards in Rule 43(b).

(i) Notice of supplemental authority. A party may file notice of citation to significant authority that comes to the party’s attention after the party's motion or memorandum has been filed or after oral argument but before decision. The notice must state the citation to the authority, the page of the motion or memorandum or the point orally argued to which the authority applies, and the reason the authority is relevant. Any other party may promptly file a response, but the court may act on the motion without waiting for a response.

(j) Orders.

(1) Decision complete when signed; entered when recorded. However designated, the court’s decision on a motion is complete when signed by the judge. The decision is entered when recorded in the docket.

(2) Preparing and serving a proposed order. Within 14 days of being directed by the court to prepare a proposed order confirming the court’s decision, a party must serve the proposed order on the other parties for review and approval as to form. If the party directed to prepare a proposed order fails to timely serve the order, any other party may prepare a proposed order confirming the court’s decision and serve the proposed order on the other parties for review and approval as to form.

(3) Effect of approval as to form. A party’s approval as to form of a proposed order certifies that the proposed order accurately reflects the court’s decision. Approval as to form does not waive objections to the substance of the order.

(4) Objecting to a proposed order. A party may object to the form of the proposed order by filing an objection within 7 days after the order is served.

(5) Filing proposed order. The party preparing a proposed order must file it:

(A) after all other parties have approved the form of the order (The party preparing the proposed order must indicate the means by which approval was received: in person; by telephone; by signature; by email; etc.);

(B) after the time to object to the form of the order has expired (The party preparing the proposed order must also file a certificate of service of the proposed order.); or

(C) within 7 days after a party has objected to the form of the order (The party preparing the proposed order may also file a response to the objection.).

(6) Proposed order before decision prohibited; exceptions. A party may not file a proposed order concurrently with a motion or a memorandum or a request to submit for decision, but a proposed order must be filed with:

(A) a stipulated motion;

(B) a motion that can be acted on without waiting for a response;

(C) an ex parte motion;

(D) a statement of discovery issues under Rule 37(a); and

(E) the request to submit for decision a motion in which a memorandum opposing the motion has not been filed.

(7) Orders entered without a response; ex parte orders. An order entered on a motion under paragraph (l) or (m) can be vacated or modified by the judge who made it with or without notice.

(8) Order to pay money. An order to pay money can be enforced in the same manner as if it were a judgment.

(k) Stipulated motions. A party seeking relief that has been agreed to by the other parties may file a stipulated motion which must:

(1) be titled substantially as: “Stipulated motion [short phrase describing the relief requested]”;

(2) include a concise statement of the relief requested and the grounds for the relief requested;

(3) include a signed stipulation in or attached to the motion and;

(4) be accompanied by a request to submit for decision and a proposed order that has been approved by the other parties.

(l) Motions that may be acted on without waiting for a response.

(1) The court may act on the following motions without waiting for a response:

(A) motion to permit an over‑length motion or memorandum;

(B) motion for an extension of time if filed before the expiration of time;

(C) motion to appear pro hac vice;

(D) motion for Rule 16 conference; and

(E) other similar motions.

(2) A motion that can be acted on without waiting for a response must:

(A) be titled as a regular motion;

(B) include a concise statement of the relief requested and the grounds for the relief requested;

(C) cite the statute or rule authorizing the motion to be acted on without waiting for a response; and

(D) be accompanied by a request to submit for decision and a proposed order.

(m) Ex parte motions. If a statute or rule permits a motion to be filed without serving the motion on the other parties, the party seeking relief may file an ex parte motion which must:

(1) be titled substantially as: “Ex parte motion [short phrase describing the relief requested]”;

(2) include a concise statement of the relief requested and the grounds for the relief requested;

(3) cite the statute or rule authorizing the ex parte motion;

(4) be accompanied by a request to submit for decision and a proposed order.

(n) Motion in opposing memorandum or reply memorandum prohibited. A party may not make a motion in a memorandum opposing a motion or in a reply memorandum. A party who objects to evidence in another party’s motion or memorandum may not move to strike that evidence. Instead, the party must include in the subsequent memorandum an objection to the evidence.

(o) Overlength motion or memorandum. The court may permit a party to file an overlength motion or memorandum upon a showing of good cause. An overlength motion or memorandum must include a table of contents and a table of authorities with page references.

(p) Limited statement of facts and authority. No statement of facts and legal authorities beyond the concise statement of the relief requested and the grounds for the relief requested required in paragraph (c) is required for the following motions:

(1) motion to allow an over-length motion or memorandum;

(2) motion to extend the time to perform an act, if the motion is filed before the time to perform the act has expired;

(3) motion to continue a hearing;

(4) motion to appoint a guardian ad litem;

(5) motion to substitute parties;

(6) motion to refer the action to or withdraw it from alternative dispute resolution under Rule 4-510.05;

(7) motion for a conference under Rule 16; and

(8) motion to approve a stipulation of the parties.

(q) Length of Filings.

(1) Unless one of the following filings complies with the page limits set forth below, it must comply with the corresponding word limits:

Type of Filing

Page Limit

Word Limit

Motion for Relief Authorized by Rule 12(b), 12(c), 56, or 65A

25

9,000

All Other Motions

15

5,400

Memorandum Opposing Motion Authorized by Rule 12(b), 12(c), 56, or 65A

25

9,000

Memorandum Opposing All Other Motions

15

5,400

Reply Memorandum Supporting Motion for Relief Authorized by Rule 12(b), 12(c), 56, or 65A

15

5,400

Reply Memorandum Supporting All Other Motions

10

3,600

Objection and Response under Rule 7(f)

3

1,100

Notice of Supplemental Authority and Response under Rule 7(i)

2

700

Statement of Discovery Issues and Objection under Rule 37(a)(2) and 37(a)(3)

4

1,500

(2) The word and page limits in this rule exclude the following: caption, table of contents, table of authorities, signature block, certificate of service, certification, exhibits, and attachments.

(3) Any filer relying on the word limits in this rule must include a certification that the document complies with the applicable word limit and must state the number of words in the document.

 

 

Rule 7A. Motion to enforce order and for sanctions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2023

(a) Motion.To enforce a court order or to obtain a sanctions order for violation of an order, including in supplemental proceedings under Rule 64, a party must file an ex parte motion to enforce order and for sanctions (if requested), pursuant to this rule and Rule 7. The motion must be filed in the same case in which that order was entered. The timeframes set forth in this rule, rather than those set forth in Rule 7, govern motions to enforce orders and for sanctions.

(b) Affidavit.The motion must state the title and date of entry of the order that the moving party seeks to enforce. The motion must be verified, or must be accompanied by at least one supporting affidavit or declaration that is based on personal knowledge and shows that the affiant or declarant is competent to testify on the matters set forth. The verified motion, affidavit, or declaration must set forth facts that would be admissible in evidence and that would support a finding that the party has violated the order.

(c) Proposed order.The motion must be accompanied by a request to submit for decision and a proposed order to attend hearing, which must:

(1) state the title and date of entry of the order that the motion seeks to enforce;

(2) state the relief sought in the motion;

(3) state whether the motion is requesting that the other party be held in contempt and, if so, state that the penalties for contempt may include, but are not limited to, a fine of up to $1000 and confinement in jail for up to 30 days;

(4) order the other party to appear personally or through counsel at a specific place (the court’s address) and date and time (left blank for the court clerk to fill in) to explain whether the nonmoving party has violated the order; and

(5) state that no written response to the motion is required but is permitted if filed within 14 days of service of the order, unless the court sets a different time, and that any written response must follow the requirements of Rule 7.

(d) Service of the order.If the court issues an order to attend a hearing, the moving party must have the order, motion, and all supporting affidavits served on the nonmoving party at least 28 days before the hearing. Service must be in a manner provided in Rule 4 if the nonmoving party is not represented by counsel in the case. If the nonmoving party is represented by counsel in the case, service must be made on the nonmoving party’s counsel of record in a manner provided in Rule 5. For purposes of this rule, a party is represented by counsel if, within the last 120 days, counsel for that party has served or filed any documents in the case and has not withdrawn. The court may shorten the 28 day period if:

(1) the motion requests an earlier date; and

(2) it clearly appears from specific facts shown by affidavit that immediate and irreparable injury, loss, or damage will result to the moving party if the hearing is not held sooner.

(e) Opposition.A written opposition is not required, but if filed, must be filed within 14 days of service of the order, unless the court sets a different time, and must follow the requirements of Rule 7.

(f) Reply. If the nonmoving party files a written opposition, the moving party may file a reply within 7 days of the filing of the opposition to the motion, unless the court sets a different time. Any reply must follow the requirements of Rule 7.

(g) Hearing.At the hearing the court may receive evidence, hear argument, and rule upon the motion, or may request additional briefing or hearings. The moving party bears the burden of proof on all claims made in the motion. At the court's discretion, the court may convene a telephone conference before the hearing to preliminarily address any issues related to the motion, including whether the court would like to order a briefing schedule other than as set forth in this rule.

(h) Limitations.This rule does not apply to proceedings instituted by the court on its own initiative to enforce an order. This rule does not apply in criminal cases or motions filed under Rule 37. Nothing in this rule is intended to limit or alter the inherent power of the court to initiate order to show cause proceedings to assess whether cases should be dismissed for failure to prosecute or to otherwise manage the court’s docket, or to limit the authority of the court to hold a party in contempt for failure to appear pursuant to a court order.

(i) Orders to show cause. The process set forth in this rule replaces and supersedes the prior order to show cause procedure. An order to attend hearing serves as an order to show cause as that term is used in Utah law.

 

 

Rule 7B. Motion to enforce order and for sanctions in domestic law matters.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2023

(a) Motion. To enforce a court order or to obtain a sanctions order for violation of an order, a party must file an ex parte motion to enforce order and for sanctions (if requested), pursuant to this rule and Rule 7. The motion must be filed in the same case in which that order was entered. The timeframes set forth in this rule, rather than those set forth in Rule 7, govern motions to enforce orders and for sanctions. If the motion is to be heard by a commissioner, the motion must also follow the procedures of Rule 101. For purpose of this rule, an order includes a decree.

(b) Affidavit. The motion must state the title and date of entry of the order that the moving party seeks to enforce. The motion must be verified, or must be accompanied by at least one supporting affidavit that is based on personal knowledge and shows that the affiant is competent to testify on the matters set forth. The verified motion or affidavit must set forth facts that would be admissible in evidence and that would support a finding that the party has violated the order.

(c) Proposed order. The motion must be accompanied by a request to submit for decision and a proposed order to attend hearing, which must:

(1) state the title and date of entry of the order that the motion seeks to enforce;

(2) state the relief sought in the motion;

(3) state whether the motion is requesting that the other party be held in contempt and, if so, state that the penalties for contempt may include, but are not limited to, a fine of up to $1000 and confinement in jail for up to 30 days;

(4) order the other party to appear personally or through counsel at a specific place (the court's address) and date and time (left blank for the court clerk to fill in) to explain whether the nonmoving party has violated the order; and

(5) state that no written response to the motion is required, but is permitted if filed at least 14 days before the hearing, unless the court sets a different time, and that any written response must follow the requirements of Rule 7, and Rule 101 if the hearing will be before a commissioner.

(d) Service of the order. If the court issues an order to attend a hearing, the moving party must have the order, motion, and all supporting affidavits served on the nonmoving party at least 28 days before the hearing. Service must be in a manner provided in Rule 4 if the nonmoving party is not represented by counsel in the case. If the nonmoving party is represented by counsel in the case, service must be made on the nonmoving party’s counsel of record in a manner provided in Rule 5. For purposes of this rule, a party is represented by counsel if, within the last 120 days, counsel for that party has served or filed any documents in the case and has not withdrawn. The court may shorten the 28 day period if:

(1) the motion requests an earlier date; and

(2) it clearly appears from specific facts shown by affidavit that immediate and irreparable injury, loss, or damage will result to the moving party if the hearing is not held sooner.

(e) Opposition. A written opposition is not required, but if filed, must be filed at least 14 days before the hearing, unless the court sets a different time, and must follow the requirements of Rule 7, and Rule 101 if the hearing will be before a commissioner.

(f) Reply. If the nonmoving party files a written opposition, the moving party may file a reply at least 7 days before the hearing, unless the court sets a different time. Any reply must follow the requirements of Rule 7, and Rule 101 if the hearing will be before a commissioner.

(g) Hearing. At the hearing the court may receive evidence, hear argument, and rule upon the motion, or may request additional briefing or hearings. The moving party bears the burden of proof on all claims made in the motion. At the court's discretion, the court may convene a telephone conference before the hearing to preliminarily address any issues related to the motion, including whether the court would like to order a briefing schedule other than as set forth in this rule.

(h) Counter Motions. A responding party may request affirmative relief only by filing a counter motion, to be heard at the same hearing. A counter motion need not be limited to the subject matter of the original motion. All of the provisions of this rule apply to counter motions except that a counter motion must be filed and served with the opposition. Any opposition to the counter motion must be filed and served no later than the reply to the motion. Any reply to the opposition to the counter motion must be filed and served at least 3 business days before the hearing in a manner that will cause the reply to be actually received by the party responding to the counter motion (i.e. hand-delivery, fax or other electronic delivery as allowed by rule or agreed by the parties). The party who filed the counter motion bears the burden of proof on all claims made in the counter motion. A separate proposed order is required only for counter motions to enforce a court order or to obtain a sanctions order for violation of an order, in which case the proposed order for the counter motion must:

(1) state the title and date of entry of the order that the counter motion seeks to enforce;

(2) state the relief sought in the counter motion;

(3) state whether the counter motion is requesting that the other party be held in contempt and, if so, state that the penalties for contempt may include, but are not limited to, a fine of up to $1000 and confinement in jail for up to 30 days;

(4) order the other party to appear personally or through counsel at the scheduled hearing to explain whether that party has violated the order; and

(5) state that no written response to the countermotion is required, but that a written response is permitted if filed at least 7 days before the hearing, unless the court sets a different time, and that any written response must follow the requirements of Rule 7, and Rule 101 if the hearing will be before a commissioner.

(i) Limitations. This rule does not apply to proceedings instituted by the court on its own initiative to enforce an order. This rule applies only to domestic relations actions, including divorce; temporary separation; separate maintenance; parentage; custody; child support; adoptions; cohabitant abuse protective orders; child protective orders; civil stalking injunctions; grandparent visitation; and modification actions. Nothing in this rule is intended to limit or alter the inherent power of the court to initiate order to show cause proceedings to assess whether cases should be dismissed for failure to prosecute or to otherwise manage the court’s docket, or to limit the authority of the court to hold a party in contempt for failure to appear pursuant to a court order.

(j) Orders to show cause. The process set forth in this rule replaces and supersedes the prior order to show cause procedure. An order to attend hearing serves as an order to show cause as that term is used in Utah law.

 

 

Rule 8. General rules of pleadings.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2021

(a) Claims for relief. An original claim, counterclaim, cross-claim or third-party claim must contain a short and plain: (1) statement of the claim showing that the party is entitled to relief; and (2) demand for judgment for specified relief. Relief in the alternative or of several different types may be demanded. A party who claims damages but does not plead an amount must plead that the damages are such as to qualify for a specified tier defined by Rule 26(c)(3). A pleading that qualifies for tier 1 or tier 2 discovery constitutes a waiver of any right to recover damages above the tier limits specified in Rule 26(c)(3), unless the pleading is amended under Rule 15. A pleading requesting relief must include the following caution language at the top right of the first page, in bold print: If you do not respond to this document within applicable time limits, judgment could be entered against you as requested. Failure to include the caution language may provide the responding party with a basis under Rule 60(b) for excusable neglect to set aside any resulting judgment or order.

(b) Defenses; form of denials. A party must state in simple, short and plain terms any defenses to each claim asserted and must admit or deny the statements in the claim. A party without knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief about the truth of a statement must so state, and this has the effect of a denial. Denials must fairly meet the substance of the statements denied. A party may deny all of the statements in a claim by general denial. A party may specify the statement or part of a statement that is admitted and deny the rest. A party may specify the statement or part of a statement that is denied and admit the rest.

(c) Affirmative defenses. An affirmative defense must contain a short and plain: (1) statement of the affirmative defense; and (2) a demand for relief. A party must set forth affirmatively in a responsive pleading accord and satisfaction, arbitration and award, assumption of risk, comparative fault, discharge in bankruptcy, duress, estoppel, failure of consideration, fraud, illegality, injury by fellow servant, laches, license, payment, release, res judicata, statute of frauds, statute of limitations, waiver, and any other matter constituting an avoidance or affirmative defense. If a party mistakenly designates a defense as a counterclaim or a counterclaim as a defense, the court, on terms, may treat the pleadings as if the defense or counterclaim had been properly designated.

(d) Effect of failure to deny. Statements in a pleading to which a responsive pleading is required, other than statements of the amount of damage, are admitted if not denied in the responsive pleading. Statements in a pleading to which no responsive pleading is required or permitted are deemed denied or avoided.

(e) Consistency. A party may state a claim or defense alternately or hypothetically, either in one count or defense or in separate counts or defenses. If statements are made in the alternative and one of them is sufficient, the pleading is not made insufficient by the insufficiency of an alternative statement. A party may state legal and equitable claims or legal and equitable defenses regardless of consistency.

(f) Construction of pleadings. All pleadings will be construed to do substantial justice.

 

 

Rule 9. Pleading special matters.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2016

(a) Capacity or Authority to Sue; Legal Existence.

(1) In General. Except when required to show that the court has jurisdiction, a pleading need not allege:

(A) a party's capacity to sue or be sued;

(B) a party's authority to sue or be sued in a representative capacity; or

(C) the legal existence of an organized association of persons that is made a party.

(2) Raising Those Issues. To raise any of those issues, a party must do so by a specific denial, which must state any supporting facts that are peculiarly within the party's knowledge.

(b) Unknown parties.

(b)(1) Designation.When a party does not know the name of an opposing party, it may state that fact in the pleadings, and designate the opposing party in a pleading by any name. When the true name of the opposing party becomes known, the pleading must be amended.

(b)(2) Descriptions of interest in quiet title actions. If one or more parties in an action to quiet title are designated in the caption as “unknown,” the pleadings may describe the unknown persons as “all other persons unknown, claiming any right, title, estate or interest in, or lien upon the real property described in the pleading adverse to the complainant's ownership, or clouding its title.”

(c) Fraud, mistake, condition of the mind. In alleging fraud or mistake, a party must state with particularity the circumstances constituting fraud or mistake. Malice, intent, knowledge, and other conditions of a person’s mind may be alleged generally.

(d) Conditions precedent. In pleading conditions precedent, it is sufficient to allege generally that all conditions precedent have been performed or have occurred. When denying that a condition precedent has been performed or has occurred, a party must do so with particularity.

(e) Official document or act. In pleading an official document or official act it is sufficient to allege that the document was legally issued or the act was legally done.

(f) Judgment.In pleading a judgment or decision of a domestic or foreign court, a judicial or quasi‑judicial tribunal, or a board or officer, it is sufficient to plead the judgment or decision without showing jurisdiction to render it.

(g) Time and place. An allegation of time or place is material when testing the sufficiency of a pleading.

(h) Special damage. If an item of special damage is claimed, it must be specifically stated.

(i) Statute of limitations. In pleading the statute of limitations it is not necessary to state the facts showing the defense but it may be alleged generally that the cause of action is barred by the statute, referring to or describing the statute by section number, subsection designation, if any, or designating the provision relied on sufficiently to identify it.

(j) Private statutes; ordinances. In pleading a private statute, an ordinance, or a right derived from a statute or ordinance, it is sufficient to refer to the statute or ordinance by its title and the day of its passage or by its section number or other designation in any official publication of the statute or ordinance. The court will take judicial notice of the statute or ordinance.

(k) Libel and slander.

(k)(1) Pleading defamatory matter. In an action for libel or slander it is sufficient to allege generally that the defamatory matter out of which the action arose was published or spoken concerning the plaintiff. If the allegation is denied, the party alleging the defamatory matter must establish at trial that it was published or spoken.

(k)(2) Pleading defense.The defendant may allege the truth of the matter charged as defamatory and any mitigating circumstances to reduce the amount of damages. Whether or not justification is proved, the defendant may give evidence of the mitigating circumstances.

(l) Allocation of fault.

(l)(1) A party seeking to allocate fault to a non-party under Title 78B, Chapter 5, Part 8 must file:

(l)(1)(A) a description of the factual and legal basis on which fault can be allocated; and

(l)(1)(B) information known or reasonably available to the party identifying the non-party, including name, address, telephone number and employer. If the identity of the non-party is unknown, the party must so state.

(l)(2) The information specified in paragraph (l)(1) must be included in the party's responsive pleading if then known or must be included in a supplemental notice filed within a reasonable time after the party discovers the factual and legal basis on which fault can be allocated. The court, upon motion and for good cause shown, may permit a party to file the information specified in paragraph (l)(1) after the expiration of any period permitted by this rule, but in no event later than 90 days before trial.

(l)(3) A party must not seek to allocate fault to another except by compliance with this rule.


Advisory Committee Note

The 2016 amendments deleted former paragraph (k) on renewing judgments because it was superfluous. The Renewal of Judgment Act (Utah Code Sections 78B-6-1801 through 78B-6-1804) allows a domestic judgment to be renewed by motion, and Section 78B 5 302 governs domesticating a foreign judgment, which can then be renewed by motion.

The process for renewing a judgment by motion is governed by Rule 58C.

Issues of capacity, conditions precedent, and statutes of limitation in paragraphs (a), (e), and (j) should be decided along with other claims and defenses.

 

 

Rule 10. Form of pleadings and other papers.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2023

(a) Caption; names of parties; other necessary information.

(1) All pleadings and other papers filed with the court must contain a caption setting forth the name of the court, the title of the action, the file number, if known, the name of the pleading or other paper, and the name, if known, of the judge (and commissioner if applicable) to whom the case is assigned. A party filing a claim for relief, whether by original claim, counterclaim, cross-claim or third-party claim, must include in the caption the discovery tier for the case as determined under Rule26.

(2) In the complaint, the title of the action must include the names of all the parties, but other pleadings and papers need only state the name of the first party on each side with an indication that there are other parties. A party whose name is not known must be designated by any name and the words "whose true name is unknown." In an action in rem, unknown parties must be designated as "all unknown persons who claim any interest in the subject matter of the action."

(3) Every pleading and other paper filed with the court must state in the top left hand corner of the first page the name, address, email address, telephone number and bar number of the attorney or party filing the paper, and, if filed by an attorney, the party for whom it is filed.

(4) A party filing a claim for relief, whether by original claim, counterclaim, cross-claim or third-party claim, must also file a completed cover sheet substantially similar in form and content to the cover sheet approved by the Judicial Council. The clerk may destroy the coversheet after recording the information it contains.

(5) Domestic relations actions, as defined in Rule 26.1, must be captioned as follows:

(i) In petitions for divorce, annulment, separate maintenance, and temporary separation: “In the matter of the marriage of [Party A and Party B].”

(ii) In petitions to establish parentage: “In the matter of the parentage of children of [Party A and Party B].”

(iii) In petitions to otherwise establish custody, parent-time, or child support: “In the matter of the children of [Party A and Party B].”

(iv) If a domestic relations action includes additional interested parties, such as the Office of Recovery Services, they must be listed in the case caption after the text described above.

(b) Paragraphs; separate statements. All statements of claim or defense must be made in numbered paragraphs. Each paragraph must be limited as far as practicable to a single set of circumstances; and a paragraph may be adopted by reference in all succeeding pleadings. Each claim founded upon a separate transaction or occurrence and each defense other than denials must be stated in a separate count or defense whenever a separation facilitates the clear presentation of the matters set forth.

(c) Adoption by reference; exhibits. Statements in a paper may be adopted by reference in a different part of the same or another paper. An exhibit to a paper is a part thereof for all purposes.

(d) Paper format. All pleadings and other papers, other than exhibits and court-approved forms, must be 8½ inches wide x 11 inches long, on white background, with a right, left, top, and bottom margin of not less than 1 inch . All text or images must be clearly legible, must be double spaced, except for matters customarily single spaced, must be on one side only and must not be smaller than 12-point size.

(e) Signature line. The name of the person signing must be typed or printed under that person’s signature. If a proposed document ready for signature by a court official is electronically filed, the order must not include the official’s signature line and must, at the end of the document, indicate that the signature appears at the top of the first page.

(f) Non-conforming papers. The clerk of the court may examine the pleadings and other papers filed with the court. If they are not prepared in conformity with paragraphs (a) ‑ (e), the clerk must accept the filing but may require counsel to substitute properly prepared papers for nonconforming papers. The clerk or the court may waive the requirements of this rule for parties appearing pro se. For good cause shown, the court may relieve any party of any requirement of this rule.

(g) Replacing lost pleadings or papers. If an original pleading or paper filed in any action or proceeding is lost, the court may, upon motion, with or without notice, authorize a copy thereof to be filed and used in lieu of the original.

(h) No improper content. The court may strike and disregard all or any part of a pleading or other paper that contains redundant, immaterial, impertinent or scandalous matter.

(i) Electronic papers.

(1) Any reference in these rules to a writing, recording or image includes the electronic version thereof.

(2) A paper electronically signed and filed is the original.

(3) An electronic copy of a paper, recording or image may be filed as though it were the original. Proof of the original, if necessary, is governed by the Utah Rules of Evidence.

(4) An electronic copy of a paper must conform to the format of the original.

(5) An electronically filed paper may contain links to other papers filed simultaneously or already on file with the court and to electronically published authority.


 

 

Rule 11. Signing of pleadings, motions, affidavits, and other papers; representations to court; sanctions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/8/2018

(a) Signature.

(a)(1) Every pleading, written motion, and other paper must be signed by at least one attorney of record, or, if the party is not represented, by the party.

(a)(2) A person may sign a paper using any form of signature recognized by law as binding. Unless required by statute, a paper need not be accompanied by affidavit or have a notarized, verified or acknowledged signature. If a rule requires an affidavit or a notarized, verified or acknowledged signature, the person may submit an unsworn declaration as described in Title 78B, Chapter 18a, Uniform Unsworn Declarations Act. If an affidavit or a paper with a notarized, verified or acknowledged signature is filed, the party must comply with Rule 5(f).

(a)(3) An unsigned paper will be stricken unless omission of the signature is corrected promptly after being called to the attention of the attorney or party.

(b) Representations to court. By presenting a pleading, written motion, or other paper to the court (whether by signing, filing, submitting, or advocating), an attorney or unrepresented party is certifying that to the best of the person's knowledge, information, and belief, formed after an inquiry reasonable under the circumstances,

(b)(1) it is not being presented for any improper purpose, such as to harass or to cause unnecessary delay or needless increase in the cost of litigation;

(b)(2) the claims, defenses, and other legal contentions are warranted by existing law or by a nonfrivolous argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of existing law or the establishment of new law;

(b)(3) the allegations and other factual contentions have evidentiary support or, if specifically so identified, are likely to have evidentiary support after a reasonable opportunity for further investigation or discovery; and

(b)(4) the denials of factual contentions are warranted on the evidence or, if specifically so identified, are reasonably based on a lack of information or belief.

(c) Sanctions. If, after notice and a reasonable opportunity to respond, the court determines that paragraph (b) has been violated, the court may, subject to the conditions stated below, impose an appropriate sanction upon the attorneys, law firms, or parties that have violated paragraph (b) or are responsible for the violation.

(c)(1) How initiated.

(c)(1)(A) By motion. A motion for sanctions under this rule must be made separately from other motions or requests and must describe the specific conduct alleged to violate paragraph (b). It must be served as provided in Rule 5, but may not be filed with or presented to the court unless, within 21 days after service of the motion (or such other period as the court may prescribe), the challenged paper, claim, defense, contention, allegation, or denial is not withdrawn or appropriately corrected. If warranted, the court may award to the party prevailing on the motion the reasonable expenses and attorney fees incurred in presenting or opposing the motion. In appropriate circumstances, a law firm may be held jointly responsible for violations committed by its partners, members, and employees.

(c)(1)(B) On court's initiative. On its own initiative, the court may enter an order describing the specific conduct that appears to violate paragraph (b) and directing an attorney, law firm, or party to show cause why it has not violated paragraph (b) with respect thereto.

(c)(2) Nature of sanction; limitations. A sanction imposed for violation of this rule must be limited to what is sufficient to deter repetition of such conduct or comparable conduct by others similarly situated. Subject to the limitations in paragraphs (c)(2)(A) and (c)(2)(B), the sanction may consist of, or include, directives of a nonmonetary nature, an order to pay a penalty into court, or, if imposed on motion and warranted for effective deterrence, an order directing payment to the movant of some or all of the reasonable attorney fees and other expenses incurred as a direct result of the violation.

(c)(2)(A) Monetary sanctions may not be awarded against a represented party for a violation of paragraph (b)(2).

(c)(2)(B) Monetary sanctions may not be awarded on the court's initiative unless the court issues its order to show cause before a voluntary dismissal or settlement of the claims made by or against the party which is, or whose attorneys are, to be sanctioned.

(c)(3) Order. When imposing sanctions, the court will describe the conduct determined to constitute a violation of this rule and explain the basis for the sanction imposed.


Advisory Committee Notes

The 1997 amendments conform state Rule 11 with federal Rule 11. One difference between the rules concerns holding a law firm jointly responsible for violations by a member of the firm. Federal Rule 11(c)(1)(A) states: "Absent exceptional circumstances, a law firm shall be held jointly responsible for violations committed by its partners, associates, and employees." Under the federal rule, joint responsibility is presumed unless the judge determines not to impose joint responsibility. State Rule 11(c)(1)(A) provides: "In appropriate circumstances, a law firm may be held jointly responsible for violations committed by its partners, members, and employees." Under the state rule, joint responsibility is not presumed, and the judge may impose joint responsibility in appropriate circumstances. What constitutes appropriate circumstances is left to the discretion of the judge, but might include: repeated violations, especially after earlier sanctions; firm-wide sanctionable practices; or a sanctionable practice approved by a supervising attorney and committed by a subordinate.


Effective May 8, 2018 pursuant to CJA Rule 11-105(5)

 

 

Rule 12. Defenses and objections.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2024

(a) When presented.

(1)Unless otherwise provided by statute or order of the court, a defendant must file and serve an answer within 21 days after the service of the summons and complaint within the state and within 30 days after service of the summons and complaint outside the state. A party served with a crossclaim must file and serve an answer to the crossclaim within 21 days after service. The plaintiff must file and serve an answer to a counterclaim within 21 days after service of the counterclaim, unless the court orders otherwise. The service of a motion under this rule alters these periods of time as follows, unless a different time is ordered by the court, but a motion directed to fewer than all of the claims in a pleading does not affect the time for responding to the remaining claims:

(A) If the court denies the motion or postpones its disposition until the trial on the merits, the responsive pleading must be served within 14 days after notice of the court's action;

(B) If the court grants a motion for a more definite statement, the responsive pleading must be served within 14 days after the service of the more definite statement.

(2) For purposes of domestic relations actions as defined in Rule 26.1, and as used in this rule, the terms “plaintiff” means petitioner, the term “defendant” means respondent, the term “complaint” means petition, and the term “counterclaim” means counterpetition.

(b) How presented. Every defense, in law or fact, to claim for relief in any pleading, whether a claim, counterclaim, crossclaim, or third-party claim, must be asserted in the responsive pleading thereto if one is required, except that the following defenses may at the option of the pleader be made by motion: (1) lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter, (2) lack of jurisdiction over the person, (3) improper venue, (4) insufficiency of process, (5) insufficiency of service of process, (6) failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, (7) failure to join an indispensable party. A motion making any of these defenses must be made before pleading if a further pleading is permitted. No defense or objection is waived by being joined with one or more other defenses or objections in a responsive pleading or motion or by further pleading after the denial of such motion or objection. If a pleading sets forth a claim for relief to which the adverse party is not required to serve a responsive pleading, the adverse party may assert at the trial any defense in law or fact to that claim for relief. If, on a motion asserting the defense numbered (6) to dismiss for failure of the pleading to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, matters outside the pleading are presented to and not excluded by the court, the motion must be treated as one for summary judgment and disposed of as provided in Rule56, and all parties must be given reasonable opportunity to present all material made pertinent to such a motion by Rule56.

(c) Motion for judgment on the pleadings. After the pleadings are closed, but within such time as not to delay the trial, any party may move for judgment on the pleadings. If, on a motion for judgment on the pleadings, matters outside the pleadings are presented to and not excluded by the court, the motion must be treated as one for summary judgment and disposed of as provided in Rule 56, and all parties must be given reasonable opportunity to present all material made pertinent to such a motion by Rule 56.

(d) Preliminary hearings. The defenses specifically enumerated (1) - (7) in subdivision (b) of this rule, whether made in a pleading or by motion, and the motion for judgment mentioned in subdivision (c) of this rule must be heard and determined before trial on application of any party, unless the court orders that the hearings and determination thereof be deferred until the trial.

(e) Motion for more definite statement. If a pleading to which a responsive pleading is permitted is so vague or ambiguous that a party cannot reasonably be required to frame a responsive pleading, the party may move for a more definite statement before interposing a responsive pleading. The motion must point out the defects complained of and the details desired. If the motion is granted and the order of the court is not obeyed within 14 days after notice of the order or within such other time as the court may fix, the court may strike the pleading to which the motion was directed or make such order as it deems just.

(f) Motion to strike. Upon motion made by a party before responding to a pleading or, if no responsive pleading is permitted by these rules, upon motion made by a party within 21 days after the service of the pleading, the court may order stricken from any pleading any insufficient defense or any redundant, immaterial, impertinent, or scandalous matter.

(g) Consolidation of defenses. A party who makes a motion under this rule may join with it the other motions herein provided for and then available. If a party makes a motion under this rule and does not include therein all defenses and objections then available which this rule permits to be raised by motion, the party must not thereafter make a motion based on any of the defenses or objections so omitted, except as provided in subdivision (h) of this rule.

(h) Waiver of defenses. A party waives all defenses and objections not presented either by motion or by answer or reply, except (1) that the defense of failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, the defense of failure to join an indispensable party, and the objection of failure to state a legal defense to a claim may also be made by a later pleading, if one is permitted, or by motion for judgment on the pleadings or at the trial on the merits, and except (2) that, whenever it appears by suggestion of the parties or otherwise that the court lacks jurisdiction of the subject matter, the court must dismiss the action. The objection or defense, if made at the trial, must be disposed of as provided in Rule15(b) in the light of any evidence that may have been received.

(i) Pleading after denial of a motion. The filing of a responsive pleading after the denial of any motion made pursuant to these rules must not be deemed a waiver of such motion.

(j) Security for costs of a nonresident plaintiff. When the plaintiff in an action resides out of this state, or is a foreign corporation, the defendant may file a motion to require the plaintiff to furnish security for costs and charges which may be awarded against such plaintiff. Upon hearing and determination by the court of the reasonable necessity therefor, the court must order the plaintiff to file a $300.00 undertaking with sufficient sureties as security for payment of such costs and charges as may be awarded against such plaintiff. No security must be required of any officer, instrumentality, or agency of the United States.

(k) Effect of failure to file undertaking. If the plaintiff fails to file the undertaking as ordered within 30 days of the service of the order, the court must, upon motion of the defendant, enter an order dismissing the action.

 

 

Rule 13. Counterclaim and crossclaim.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2016

(a) Compulsory counterclaim.

(a)(1) A pleading must state as a counterclaim any claim that—at the time of its service—the pleader has against an opposing party if the claim:

(a)(1)(A) arises out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the opposing party's claim; and

(a)(1)(B) does not require adding another party over whom the court cannot acquire jurisdiction.

(a)(2) The pleader need not state the claim if:

(a)(2)(A) when the action was commenced, the claim was the subject of another pending action, or

(a)(2)(B) the opposing party sued on its claim by attachment or other process that did not establish personal jurisdiction over the pleader on that claim, and the pleader does not assert any counterclaim under this rule.

(b) Permissive counterclaim. A pleading may state as a counterclaim against an opposing party any claim that is not compulsory.

(c) Relief sought in a counterclaim. A counterclaim need not diminish or defeat the recovery sought by the opposing party. It may request relief that exceeds in amount or differs in kind from the relief sought by the opposing party.

(d) Counterclaim maturing or acquired after pleading. The court may permit a party to file a supplemental pleading asserting a counterclaim that matured or was acquired by the party after serving an earlier pleading.

(e) Crossclaim against coparty. A pleading may state as a crossclaim any claim by one party against a coparty if the claim arises out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the original action or of a counterclaim, or if the claim relates to any property that is the subject matter of the original action. The crossclaim may include a claim that the coparty is or may be liable to the crossclaimant for all or part of a claim asserted in the action against the crossclaimant.

(f) Joining additional parties. Rules 19 and 20 govern the addition of a person as a party to a counterclaim or crossclaim.

(g) Separate trials; separate judgments. If the court orders separate trials under Rule 42, it may enter judgment on a counterclaim or crossclaim under Rule 54(b) when it has jurisdiction to do so, even if the opposing party’s claims have been dismissed or otherwise resolved.

 

 

Rule 14. Third-party practice.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) When defendant may bring in third party. At any time after commencement of the action a defendant, as a third-party plaintiff, may cause a summons and complaint to be served upon a person not a party to the action who is or may be liable to him for all or part of the plaintiff's claim against him. The third-party plaintiff need not obtain leave to make the service if he files the third-party complaint not later than 14 days after he serves his original answer. Otherwise he must obtain leave on motion upon notice to all parties to the action. The person served with the summons and third-party complaint, hereinafter called the third-party defendant, shall make his defenses to the third-party plaintiff's claim as provided in Rule 12 and his counterclaims against the third-party plaintiff and cross-claims against other third-party defendants as provided in Rule 13. The third-party defendant may assert against the plaintiff any defenses which the third-party plaintiff has to the plaintiff's claim. The third-party defendant may also assert any claim against the plaintiff arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the plaintiff's claim against the third-party plaintiff. The plaintiff may assert any claim against the third-party defendant arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the plaintiff's claim against the third-party plaintiff, and the third-party defendant thereupon shall assert his defenses as provided in Rule 12 and his counterclaims and cross-claims as provided in Rule 13. A third-party defendant may proceed under this rule against any person not a party to the action who is or may be liable to him for all or part of the claim made in the action against the third-party defendant.

(b) When plaintiff may bring in third party. When a counterclaim is asserted against a plaintiff, he may cause a third party to be brought in under circumstances which under this rule would entitle a defendant to do so.

 

 

Rule 15. Amended and supplemental pleadings.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2016

(a) Amendments before trial.

(a)(1) A party may amend its pleading once as a matter of course within:

(a)(1)(A) 21 days after serving it; or

(a)(1)(B) if the pleading is one to which a responsive pleading is required, 21 days after service of a responsive pleading or 21 days after service of a motion under Rule 12(b), (e), or (f), whichever is earlier.

(a)(2) In all other cases, a party may amend its pleading only with the court’s permission or the opposing party’s written consent. The party must attach its proposed amended pleading to the motion to permit an amended pleading. The court should freely give permission when justice requires.

(a)(3) Any required response to an amended pleading must be filed within the time remaining to respond to the original pleading or within 14 days after service of the amended pleading, whichever is later.

(b) Amendments during and after trial.

(b)(1) When an issue not raised in the pleadings is tried by the parties’ express or implied consent, it must be treated in all respects as if raised in the pleadings. A party may move—at any time, even after judgment—to amend the pleadings to conform them to the evidence and to raise an unpleaded issue. But failure to amend does not affect the result of the trial of that issue.

(b)(2) If, at trial, a party objects that evidence is not within the issues raised in the pleadings, the court may permit the pleadings to be amended. The court should freely permit an amendment when doing so will aid in presenting the merits and the objecting party fails to satisfy the court that the evidence would prejudice that party’s action or defense on the merits. The court may grant a continuance to enable the objecting party to meet the evidence.

(c) Relation back of amendments. An amendment to a pleading relates back to the date of the original pleading when:

(c)(1) the law that provides the applicable statute of limitations allows relation back;

(c)(2) the amendment asserts a claim or defense that arose out of the conduct, transaction, or occurrence set out—or attempted to be set out—in the original pleading; or

(c)(3) the amendment adds a party, substitutes a party, or changes the name of the party against whom a claim is asserted, if paragraph (c)(2) is satisfied and if, within the period provided by Rule 4(b) for serving the summons and complaint, the party to be brought in by amendment:

(c)(3)(A) received such notice of the action that it will not be prejudiced in defending on the merits; and

(c)(3)(B) knew or should have known that the action would have been brought against it, but for a mistake concerning the proper party’s identity.

(d) Supplemental pleadings. On motion and reasonable notice, the court may, on just terms, permit a party to file a supplemental pleading setting out any transaction, occurrence, or event that happened after the date of the pleading to be supplemented. The court may permit supplementation even though the original pleading is defective in stating a claim or defense. The court may order that the opposing party respond to the supplemental pleading within a specified time.


Advisory Committee Notes

Although the precise language is different for purposes of clarity, the 2016 amendments to Utah Rule of Civil Procedure 15(c) adopt the approach of Federal Rule 15(c) regarding the relation-back of an amended pleading when the amended pleading adds a new party.

 

 

Rule 16. Pretrial conferences.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Pretrial conferences. The court, in its discretion or upon motion, may direct the attorneys and, when appropriate, the parties to appear for such purposes as:

(a)(1) expediting the disposition of the action;

(a)(2) establishing early and continuing control so that the case will not be protracted for lack of management;

(a)(3) discouraging wasteful pretrial activities;

(a)(4) improving the quality of the trial through more thorough preparation;

(a)(5) facilitating mediation or other ADR processes for the settlement of the case;

(a)(6) considering all matters as may aid in the disposition of the case;

(a)(7) establishing the time to join other parties and to amend the pleadings;

(a)(8) establishing the time to file motions;

(a)(9) establishing the time to complete discovery;

(a)(10) extending fact discovery;

(a)(11) setting the date for pretrial and final pretrial conferences and trial;

(a)(12) provisions providing for the preservation, disclosure or discovery of electronically stored information;

(a)(13) considering any agreements the parties reach for asserting claims of privilege or of protection as trial-preparation material after production; and

(a)(14) considering any other appropriate matters.

(b) Trial settings. Unless an order sets the trial date, any party may and the plaintiff shall, at the close of all discovery, certify to the court that discovery is complete, that any required mediation or other ADR processes have been completed or excused and that the case is ready for trial. The court shall schedule the trial as soon as mutually convenient to the court and parties. The court shall notify parties of the trial date and of any final pretrial conference.

(c) Final pretrial conferences. The court, in its discretion or upon motion, may direct the attorneys and, when appropriate, the parties to appear for such purposes as settlement and trial management. The conference shall be held as close to the time of trial as reasonable under the circumstances.

(d) Sanctions. If a party or a party's attorney fails to obey an order, if a party or a party's attorney fails to attend a conference, if a party or a party's attorney is substantially unprepared to participate in a conference, or if a party or a party's attorney fails to participate in good faith, the court, upon motion or its own initiative, may take any action authorized by Rule 37(b).


Advisory Committee Notes

For the purposes of this rule, “ADR” is as defined in CJA Rule 4-510.01.

 

 

Rule 17. Parties plaintiff and defendant.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Real party in interest. Every action shall be prosecuted in the name of the real party in interest. An executor, administrator, guardian, bailee, trustee of an express trust, a party with whom or in whose name a contract has been made for the benefit of another, or a party authorized by statute may sue in that person's name without joining the party for whose benefit the action is brought; and when a statute so provides, an action for the use or benefit of another shall be brought in the name of the state of Utah. No action shall be dismissed on the ground that it is not prosecuted in the name of the real party in interest until a reasonable time has been allowed after objection for ratification of commencement of the action by, or joinder or substitution of, the real party in interest; and such ratification, joinder, or substitution shall have the same effect as if the action had been commenced in the name of the real party in interest.

(b) Minors or incompetent persons. An unemancipated minor or an insane or incompetent person who is a party must appear either by a general guardian or by a guardian ad litem appointed in the particular case by the court in which the action is pending. A guardian ad litem may be appointed in any case when it is deemed by the court in which the action or proceeding is prosecuted expedient to represent the minor, insane or incompetent person in the action or proceeding, notwithstanding that the person may have a general guardian and may have appeared by the guardian. In an action in rem it shall not be necessary to appoint a guardian ad litem for any unknown party who might be a minor or an incompetent person.

(c) Guardian ad litem; how appointed. A guardian ad litem appointed by a court must be appointed as follows:

(c)(1) When the minor is plaintiff, upon the application of the minor, if the minor is of the age of fourteen years, or if under that age, upon the application of a relative or friend of the minor.

(c)(2) When the minor is defendant, upon the application of the minor if the minor is of the age of fourteen years and applies within 21 days after the service of the summons, or if under that age or if the minor neglects so to apply, then upon the application of a relative or friend of the minor, or of any other party to the action.

(c)(3) When a minor defendant resides out of this state, the plaintiff, upon motion therefor, shall be entitled to an order designating some suitable person to be guardian ad litem for the minor defendant, unless the defendant or someone in behalf of the defendant within 21 days after service of notice of such motion shall cause to be appointed a guardian for such minor. Service of such notice may be made upon the defendant's general or testamentary guardian located in the defendant's state; if there is none, such notice, together with the summons in the action, shall be served in the manner provided for publication of summons upon such minor, if over fourteen years of age, or, if under fourteen years of age, by such service on the person with whom the minor resides. The guardian ad litem for such nonresident minor defendant shall have 21 days after appointment in which to plead to the action.

(c)(4) When an insane or incompetent person is a party to an action or proceeding, upon the application of a relative or friend of such insane or incompetent person, or of any other party to the action or proceeding.

(d) Associates may sue or be sued by common name. When two or more persons associated in any business either as a joint-stock company, a partnership or other association, not a corporation, transact such business under a common name, whether it comprises the names of such associates or not, they may sue or be sued by such common name. Any judgment obtained against the association shall bind the joint property of all the associates in the same manner as if all had been named parties and had been sued upon their joint liability. The separate property of an individual member of the association may not be bound by the judgment unless the member is named as a party and the court acquires jurisdiction over the member.

(e) Action against a nonresident doing business in this state. When a nonresident person is associated in and conducts business within the state of Utah in one or more places in that person's own name or a common trade name, and the business is conducted under the supervision of a manager, superintendent or agent the person may be sued in the person's name in any action arising out of the conduct of the business.

(f) As used in these rules, the term plaintiff shall include a petitioner, and the term defendant shall include a respondent.


Advisory Committee Notes

Paragraph (d) has been changed to conform to the holding in Cottonwood Mall Co. v. Sine, 767 P.2d 499 (Utah 1988), which allows an unincorporated association to sue in its own name. The rule continues to allow an unincorporated association to be sued in its own name. The final sentence of paragraph (d) was added to confirm that the separate property of an individual member of an association may not be bound by the judgment unless the member is made a party.

Technical changes in all paragraphs of the rule make the terminology gender neutral. In part (c) the word "minor" has replaced the word "infant," in order to maintain consistency with recent changes made in Rule 4(e)(2). In Rule 4 an infant is defined as a person under the age of 14 years, whereas the intent of Rule 17(c) is to include persons under the age of 18 years.

 

 

Rule 18. Joinder of claims and remedies.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Joinder of claims. The plaintiff in his complaint or in a reply setting forth a counterclaim and the defendant in an answer setting forth a counterclaim may join either as independent or as alternate claims as many claims either legal or equitable or both as he may have against an opposing party. There may be a like joinder of claims when there are multiple parties if the requirements of Rules 19, 20, and 22 are satisfied. There may be a like joinder of cross-claims or third-party claims if the requirements of Rules 13 and 14 respectively are satisfied.

(b) Joinder of remedies; fraudulent conveyances. Whenever a claim is one heretofore cognizable only after another claim has been prosecuted to a conclusion, the two claims may be joined in a single action; but the court shall grant relief in that action only in accordance with the relative substantive rights of the parties. In particular, a plaintiff may state a claim for money and a claim to have set aside a conveyance fraudulent as to him, without first having obtained a judgment establishing the claim for money.

 

 

Rule 19. Joinder of persons needed for just adjudication.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Persons to be joined if feasible. A person who is subject to service of process and whose joinder will not deprive the court of jurisdiction over the subject matter of action shall be joined as a party in the action if (1) in his absence complete relief cannot be accorded among those already parties, or (2) he claims an interest relating to the subject of the action and is so situated that the disposition of the action in his absence may (i) as a practical matter impair or impede his ability to protect that interest or (ii) leave any of the persons already parties subject to a substantial risk of incurring double, multiple, or otherwise inconsistent obligations by reason of his claimed interest. If he has not been so joined, the court shall order that he be made a party. If he should join as a plaintiff but refuses to do so, he may be made a defendant, or, in a proper case, an involuntary plaintiff. If the joined party objects to venue and his joinder would render the venue of the action improper, he shall be dismissed from the action.

(b) Determination by court whenever joinder not feasible. If a person as described in Subdivision (a)(1)-(2) hereof cannot be made a party, the court shall determine whether in equity and good conscience the action should proceed among the parties before it, or should be dismissed, the absent person being thus regarded as indispensable. The factors to be considered by the court include: first, to what extent a judgment rendered in the person's absence might be prejudicial to him or those already parties; second, the extent to which, by protective provisions in the judgment, by the shaping of relief, or other measure, the prejudice can be lessened or avoided; third, whether a judgment rendered in the person's absence will be adequate; fourth, whether the plaintiff will have an adequate remedy if the action is dismissed for nonjoinder.

(c) Pleading reasons for nonjoinder. A pleading asserting a claim for relief shall state the names, if known to the pleader, of any persons as described in Subdivision (a)(1)-(2) hereof who are not joined, and the reasons why they are not joined.

(d) Exception of class actions. This rule is subject to the provisions of Rule 23.

 

 

Rule 20. Permissive joinder of parties.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Permissive joinder. All persons may join in one action as plaintiffs if they assert any right to relief jointly, severally, or in the alternative in respect of or arising out of the same transaction, occurrence, or series of transactions or occurrences and if any question of law or fact common to all of them will arise in the action. All persons may be joined in one action as defendants if there is asserted against them jointly, severally, or in the alternative, any right to relief in respect of or arising out of the same transaction, occurrence, or series of transactions or occurrences and if any question of law or fact common to all of them will arise in the action. A plaintiff or defendant need not be interested in obtaining or defending against all the relief demanded. Judgment may be given for one or more of the plaintiffs according to their respective rights to relief, and against one or more defendants according to their respective liabilities.

(b) Separate trials. The court may make such orders as will prevent a party from being embarrassed, delayed, or put to expense by the inclusion of a party against whom he asserts no claim and who asserts no claim against him, and may order separate trials or make other orders to prevent delay or prejudice.

 

 

Rule 21. Misjoinder and non-joinder of parties.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

Misjoinder of parties is not ground for dismissal of an action. Parties may be dropped or added by order of the court on motion of any party or of its own initiative at any stage of the action and on such terms as are just. Any claim against a party may be severed and proceeded with separately.

 

 

Rule 22. Interpleader.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

Persons having claims against the plaintiff may be joined as defendants and required to interplead when their claims are such that the plaintiff is or may be exposed to double or multiple liability. It is not ground for objecting to the joinder that the claims of the several claimants or the titles on which their claims depend do not have a common origin or are not identical but are adverse to and independent of one another, or that the plaintiff avers that he is not liable in whole or in part to any or all of the claimants. A defendant exposed to similar liability may obtain such interpleader by way of cross-claim or counterclaim. The provisions of this rule supplement and do not in any way limit the joinder of parties permitted in Rule 20.

 

 

Rule 23. Class actions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Prerequisites to a class action. One or more members of a class may sue or be sued as representative parties on behalf of all only if (1) the class is so numerous that joinder of all members is impracticable, (2) there are questions of law or fact common to the class, (3) the claims or defenses of the representative parties are typical of the claims or defenses of the class, and (4) the representative parties will fairly and adequately protect the interests of the class.

(b) Class actions maintainable. An action may be maintained as a class action if the prerequisites of Subdivision (a) are satisfied, and in addition:

(b)(1) The prosecution of separate actions by or against individual members of the class would create a risk of:

(b)(1)(A) inconsistent or varying adjudications with respect to individual members of the class which would establish incompatible standards of conduct for the party opposing the class, or

(b)(1)(B) adjudications with respect to individual members of the class which would as a practical matter be dispositive of the interests of the other members not parties to the adjudications or substantially impair or impede their ability to protect their interests; or

(b)(2) The party opposing the class has acted or refused to act on grounds generally applicable to the class, thereby making appropriate final injunctive relief or corresponding declaratory relief with respect to the class as a whole; or

(b)(3) The court finds that the questions of law or fact common to the members of the class predominate over any questions affecting only individual members, and that a class action is superior to other available methods for the fair and efficient adjudication of the controversy. The matters pertinent to the findings include: (A) the interest of members of the class in individually controlling the prosecution or defense of separate actions; (B) the extent and nature of any litigation concerning the controversy already commenced by or against members of the class; (C) the desirability or undesirability of concentrating the litigation of the claims in the particular forum; (D) the difficulties likely to be encountered in the management of a class action.

(c) Determination by order whether class action to be maintained; notice; judgment; actions conducted partially as class actions.

(c)(1) As soon as practicable after the commencement of an action brought as a class action, the court shall determine by order whether it is to be maintained. An order under this subdivision may be conditional, and may be altered or amended before the decision on the merits.

(c)(2) In any class action maintained under Subdivision (b)(3), the court shall direct to the members of the class the best notice practicable under the circumstances, including individual notice to all members who can be identified through reasonable effort. The notice shall advise each member that (A) the court will exclude him from the class if he so requests by a specified date; (B) the judgment, whether favorable or not, will include all members who do not request exclusion; and (C) any member who does not request exclusion may, if he desires, enter an appearance through his counsel.

(c)(3) The judgment in an action maintained as a class action under Subdivision (b)(1) or (b)(2), whether or not favorable to the class, shall include and describe those whom the court finds to be members of the class. The judgment in an action maintained as a class action under Subdivision (b)(3), whether or not favorable to the class, shall include and specify or describe those to whom the notice provided in Subdivision (c)(2) was directed, and who have not requested exclusion, and whom the court finds to be members of the class.

(c)(4) When appropriate (A) an action may be brought or maintained as a class action with respect to particular issues, or (B) a class may be divided into subclasses and each subclass treated as a class, and the provisions of this rule shall then be construed and applied accordingly.

(d) Orders in conduct of actions. In the conduct of actions to which this rule applies, the court may make appropriate orders: (1) determining the course of proceedings or prescribing measures to prevent undue repetition or complication in the presentation of evidence or argument; (2) requiring, for the protection of the members of the class or otherwise for the fair conduct of the action, that notice be given in such manner as the court may direct to some or all of the members of any step in the action, or of the proposed extent of the judgment, or of the opportunity of members to signify whether they consider the representation fair and adequate, to intervene and present claims or defenses, or otherwise to come into the action; (3) imposing conditions on the representative parties or on intervenors; (4) requiring that the pleadings be amended to eliminate therefrom allegations as to representation of absent persons, and that the action proceed accordingly; (5) dealing with similar procedural matters. The orders may be combined with an order under Rule 16, and may be altered or amended as may be desirable from time to time.

(e) Dismissal or compromise. A class action shall not be dismissed or compromised without the approval of the court, and notice of the proposed dismissal or compromise shall be given to all members of the class in such manner as the court directs.

 

 

Rule 23A. Derivative actions by shareholders.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) The complaint in a derivative action brought by one or more shareholders or members to enforce a right of a corporation or of an unincorporated association shall be verified and shall allege:

(a)(1) the right that the corporation or association could have enforced and did not;

(a)(2) that the plaintiff was a shareholder or member at the time of the transaction complained of or that the plaintiff’s share or membership thereafter devolved to the plaintiff by operation of law;

(a)(3) that the action is not a collusive one to confer jurisdiction on the court that it would not otherwise have;

(a)(4) with particularity, the plaintiff’s efforts, if any, to obtain the desired action; and

(a)(5) the reasons for the failure to obtain the action or for not making the effort.

(b) The derivative action may not be maintained if it appears that the plaintiff does not fairly and adequately represent the interests of the shareholders or members similarly situated in enforcing the right of the corporation or association.

(c) The action shall not be dismissed or compromised without the approval of the court, and notice of the proposed dismissal or compromise shall be given to shareholders or members in such manner as the court directs.

 

 

Rule 24. Intervention.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2021

(a)Intervention of right On timely motion, the court must permit anyone to intervene who:

(1) is given an unconditional right to intervene by a statute; or

(2) claims an interest relating to the property or transaction that is the subject of the action, and is so situated that disposing of the action may as a practical matter impair or impede the movant's ability to protect its interest, unless existing parties adequately represent that interest.

(b)Permissiveintervention.

(1) In General. On timely motion, the court may permit anyone to intervene who:

(A) is given a conditional right to intervene by a statute; or

(B) has a claim or defense that shares with the main action a common question of law or fact.

(2) By a Governmental Entity. On timely motion, the court may permit a governmental entity to intervene if a party's claim or defense is based on:

(A) a statute or executive order administered by the governmental entity; or

(B) any regulation, order, requirement, or agreement issued or made under the statute or executive order.

(3) Delay or Prejudice. In exercising its discretion, the court must consider whether the intervention will unduly delay or prejudice the adjudication of the original parties' rights.

(c) Notice and motion required. A motion to intervene must be served on the parties as provided in Rule 5. The motion must state the grounds for intervention and set out the claim or defense for which intervention is sought.

(d)Constitutionality of Utah statutes, ordinances, rules, and other administrative or legislative enactments.

(1) Challenges to a statute. If a party challenges the constitutionality of a statute in an action in which the Attorney General has not appeared, the party raising the question of constitutionality shall notify the Attorney General of such fact by serving the notice on the Attorney General by email or, if circumstances prevent service by email, by mail at the address below. The party shall then file proof of service with the court.

Email: notices@agutah.gov

Mail:

Office of the Utah AttorneyGeneral

Attn: Utah SolicitorGeneral

350 North State Street, Suite230

P.O. Box142320

Salt Lake City, Utah84114-2320

(2)Challenges to an ordinance or other governmental enactment. If a party challenges the constitutionality of a governmental entity’s ordinance, rule, or other administrative or legislative enactment in an action in which the governmental entity has not appeared, the party raising the question of constitutionality shall notify the governmental entity of such fact by serving the person identified in Rule 4(d)(1) of the Utah Rules of Civil Procedure. The party shall then file proof of service with the court.

(3)Notification procedures.

(A) Form and content. The notice shall (i) be in writing, (ii) be titled“Notice of Constitutional Challenge Under URCP 24(d),” (iii) concisely describe the nature of the challenge, and (iv) include, as an attachment, the pleading, motion, or other paper challenging constitutionality as set forth above.

(B) Timing. The party shall serve the notice on the Attorney General or other governmental entity on or before the date the party files the paper challenging constitutionality as set forth above.

(4)Attorney General’s or other governmental entity’s response to notice.

(A)Within14daysafterthedeadlineforthepartiestofileallpapersinresponse to the constitutional challenge, the Attorney General or other governmental entity(“responding entity”)shall file a notice of intent to respond unless the responding entity determines that a response is unnecessary. The responding entity may seek up to an additional 7 days’ extension of time to file a notice of intent to respond.

(B)If the responding entity files a notice of intent to respond within the time permitted by this rule, the court will allow the responding entity to file a response to the constitutional challenge and participate at oral argument when it is heard.

(C)Unless the parties stipulate to or the court grants additional time, the responding entity’s response to the constitutional challenge shall be filed within 14 days after filing the notice of intent to respond.

(D)The responding entity’s right to respond to a constitutional challenge under Rule 25A of the Utah Rules of Appellate Procedure is unaffected by the responding entity’s decision not to respond under this rule.

(5) Failure to provide notice. Failure of a party to provide notice as required by this rule is not a waiver of any constitutional challenge otherwise timely asserted. If a party does not serve a notice as required by this rule, the court may postpone the hearing until the party serves the notice.

(e) Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. In proceedings subject to the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, 25 U.S.C. sections1901–63:

(1) The Indian child’s tribe is not required to formally intervene in the proceeding unless the tribe seeks affirmative relief from the court.

(2) If an Indian child’s tribe does not formally intervene in the proceeding, official tribal representatives from the Indian child’s tribe have the right to participate in any court proceeding. Participating in a court proceeding includes:

(A) being present at the hearing;

(B) addressing the court;

(C) requesting and receiving notice of hearings;

(D) presenting information to the court and parties that is relevant to the proceeding;

(E) submitting written reports and recommendations to the court and parties; and

(F) performing other duties and responsibilities as requested or approved by the court.

(3) The designated representative must provide the representative’s contact information in writing to the court and to the parties.

(4) As provided in Rule 14-802 of the Supreme Court Rules of Professional Practice, before a nonlawyer may represent a tribe in the proceeding, the tribe must designate the nonlawyer representative by filing a written authorization. If the tribe changes its designated representative or if the representative withdraws, the tribe must file a written substitution of representation or withdrawal.

 

 

Rule 25. Substitution of parties.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Death.

(a)(1) If a party dies and the claim is not thereby extinguished, the court may order substitution of the proper parties. The motion for substitution may be made by any party or by the successors or representatives of the deceased party. The moving party shall serve the motion and any notice of hearing on the parties as provided in Rule 5 and upon persons not parties in the manner provided in Rule 4 for the service of a summons. Unless the motion for substitution is made not later than ninety days after the death is suggested upon the record by service of a statement of the fact of the death as provided herein for the service of the motion, the action shall be dismissed as to the deceased party.

(a)(2) In the event of the death of one or more of the plaintiffs or of one or more of the defendants in an action in which the right sought to be enforced survives only to the surviving plaintiffs or only against the surviving defendants, the action does not abate. The death shall be suggested upon the record and the action shall proceed in favor of or against the surviving parties.

(b) Incompetency. If a party becomes incompetent, the court upon motion served as provided in Subdivision (a) of this rule may allow the action to be continued by or against his representative.

(c) Transfer of interest. In case of any transfer of interest, the action may be continued by or against the original party, unless the court upon motion directs the person to whom the interest is transferred to be substituted in the action or joined with the original party. Service of the motion shall be made as provided in Subdivision (a) of this rule.

(d) Public officers; death or separation from office. When a public officer is a party to an action and during its pendency dies, resigns, or otherwise ceases to hold office, the action may be continued and maintained by or against his successor, if within 6 months after the successor takes office, it is satisfactorily shown to the court that there is a substantial need for so continuing and maintaining it. Substitution pursuant to this rule may be made when it is shown by supplemental pleading that the successor of an officer adopts or continues or threatens to adopt or continue the action of his predecessor. Before a substitution is made, the party or officer to be affected, unless expressly assenting thereto, shall be given reasonable notice of the application therefor and accorded an opportunity to object.

 

 

Rule 26. General provisions governing disclosure and discovery.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/4/2022

(a) Disclosure. This rule applies unless changed or supplemented by a rule governing disclosure and discovery in a practice area.

(1) Initial disclosures. Except in cases exempt under paragraph (a)(3), a party must, without waiting for a discovery request, serve on the other parties:

(A) the name and, if known, the address and telephone number of:

(i) each individual likely to have discoverable information supporting its claims or defenses, unless solely for impeachment, identifying the subjects of the information; and

(ii) each fact witness the party may call in its case-in-chief and, except for an adverse party, a summary of the expected testimony;

(B) a copy of all documents, data compilations, electronically stored information, and tangible things in the possession or control of the party that the party may offer in its case-in-chief, except charts, summaries, and demonstrative exhibits that have not yet been prepared and must be disclosed in accordance with paragraph (a)(5);

(C) a computation of any damages claimed and a copy of all discoverable documents or evidentiary material on which such computation is based, including materials about the nature and extent of injuries suffered;

(D) a copy of any agreement under which any person may be liable to satisfy part or all of a judgment or to indemnify or reimburse for payments made to satisfy the judgment; and

(E) a copy of all documents to which a party refers in its pleadings.

(2) Timing of initial disclosures. The disclosures required by paragraph (a)(1) must be served on the other parties:

(A) by a plaintiff within 14 days after the filing of the first answer to that plaintiff’s complaint; and

(B) by a defendant within 42 days after the filing of that defendant’s first answer to the complaint.

(3) Exemptions.

(A) Unless otherwise ordered by the court or agreed to by the parties, the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) do not apply to actions:

(i) for judicial review of adjudicative proceedings or rule making proceedings of an administrative agency;

(ii) governed by Rule 65B or Rule 65C;

(iii) to enforce an arbitration award;

(iv) for water rights general adjudication under Title 73, Chapter 4, Determination of Water Rights.

(B) In an exempt action, the matters subject to disclosure under paragraph (a)(1) are subject to discovery under paragraph (b).

(4) Expert testimony.

(A) Disclosure of retained expert testimony. A party must, without waiting for a discovery request, serve on the other parties the following information regarding any person who may be used at trial to present evidence under Rule702 of the Utah Rules of Evidence and who is retained or specially employed to provide expert testimony in the case or whose duties as an employee of the party regularly involve giving expert testimony: (i) the expert’s name and qualifications, including a list of all publications authored within the preceding 10 years, and a list of any other cases in which the expert has testified as an expert at trial or by deposition within the preceding four years, (ii) a brief summary of the opinions to which the witness is expected to testify, (iii) the facts, data, and other information specific to the case that will be relied upon by the witness in forming those opinions, and (iv) the compensation to be paid for the witness’s study and testimony.

(B) Limits on expert discovery. Further discovery may be obtained from an expert witness either by deposition or by written report. A deposition must not exceed four hours and the party taking the deposition must pay the expert’s reasonable hourly fees for attendance at the deposition. A report must be signed by the expert and must contain a complete statement of all opinions the expert will offer at trial and the basis and reasons for them. Such an expert may not testify in a party’s case-in-chief concerning any matter not fairly disclosed in the report. The party offering the expert must pay the costs for the report.

(C) Timing for expert discovery.

(i) The party who bears the burden of proof on the issue for which expert testimony is offered must serve on the other parties the information required by paragraph (a)(4)(A) within 14 days after the close of fact discovery. Within 14 days thereafter, the party opposing the expert may serve notice electing either a deposition of the expert pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(B) and Rule 30, or a written report pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(B). The deposition must occur, or the report must be served on the other parties, within 42 days after the election is served on the other parties. If no election is served on the other parties, then no further discovery of the expert must be permitted.

(ii) The party who does not bear the burden of proof on the issue for which expert testimony is offered must serve on the other parties the information required by paragraph (a)(4)(A) within 14 days after the later of (A) the date on which the disclosure under paragraph (a)(4)(C)(i) is due, or (B) service of the written report or the taking of the expert’s deposition pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(C)(i). Within 14 days thereafter, the party opposing the expert may serve notice electing either a deposition of the expert pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(B) and Rule 30, or a written report pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(B). The deposition must occur, or the report must be served on the other parties, within 42 days after the election is served on the other parties. If no election is served on the other parties, then no further discovery of the expert must be permitted.

(iii) If the party who bears the burden of proof on an issue wants to designate rebuttal expert witnesses, it must serve on the other parties the information required by paragraph (a)(4)(A) within 14 days after the later of (A) the date on which the election under paragraph (a)(4)(C)(ii) is due or (B) service of the written report or the taking of the expert’s deposition pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(C)(ii). Within 14 days thereafter, the party opposing the expert may serve notice electing either a deposition of the expert pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(B) and Rule 30, or a written report pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(B). The deposition must occur, or the report must be served on the other parties, within 42 days after the election is served on the other parties. If no election is served on the other parties, then no further discovery of the expert must be permitted. The court may preclude an expert disclosed only as a rebuttal expert from testifying in the case in chief.

(D) Multiparty actions. In multiparty actions, all parties opposing the expert must agree on either a report or a deposition. If all parties opposing the expert do not agree, then further discovery of the expert may be obtained only by deposition pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(B) and Rule 30.

(E) Summary of non-retained expert testimony. If a party intends to present evidence at trial under Rule 702 of the Utah Rules of Evidence from any person other than an expert witness who is retained or specially employed to provide testimony in the case or a person whose duties as an employee of the party regularly involve giving expert testimony, that party must serve on the other parties a written summary of the facts and opinions to which the witness is expected to testify in accordance with the deadlines set forth in paragraph (a)(4)(C). Such a witness cannot be required to provide a report pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(B). A deposition of such a witness may not exceed four hours and, unless manifest injustice would result, the party taking the deposition must pay the expert's reasonable hourly fees for attendance at the deposition.

(5) Pretrial disclosures.

(A) A party must, without waiting for a discovery request, serve on the other parties:

(i) the name and, if not previously provided, the address and telephone number of each witness, unless solely for impeachment, separately identifying witnesses the party will call and witnesses the party may call;

(ii) the name of witnesses whose testimony is expected to be presented by transcript of a deposition;

(iii) designations of the proposed deposition testimony; and

(iv) a copy of each exhibit, including charts, summaries, and demonstrative exhibits, unless solely for impeachment, separately identifying those which the party will offer and those which the party may offer.

(B) Disclosure required by paragraph (a)(5)(A) must be served on the other parties at least 28 days before trial. Disclosures required by paragraph (a)(5)(A)(i) and (a)(5)(A)(ii) must also be filed on the date that they are served. At least 14 days before trial, a party must serve any counter designations of deposition testimony and any objections and grounds for the objections to the use of any deposition, witness, or exhibit if the grounds for the objection are apparent before trial. Other than objections under Rules 402 and 403 of the Utah Rules of Evidence, other objections not listed are waived unless excused by the court for good cause.

(6) Form of disclosure and discovery production. Rule 34 governs the form in which all documents, data compilations, electronically stored information, tangible things, and evidentiary material should be produced under this Rule.

(b) Discovery scope.

(1) In general. Parties may discover any matter, not privileged, which is relevant to the claim or defense of any party if the discovery satisfies the standards of proportionality set forth below.

(2) Privileged matters.

(A)Privileged matters that are not discoverable or admissible in any proceeding of any kind or character include:

(i) all information in any form provided during and created specifically as part of a request for an investigation, the investigation, findings, or conclusions of peer review, care review, or quality assurance processes of any organization of health care providers as defined in Utah Code Title 78B, Chapter 3, Part 4, Utah Health Care Malpractice Act, for the purpose of evaluating care provided to reduce morbidity and mortality or to improve the quality of medical care, or for the purpose of peer review of the ethics, competence, or professional conduct of any health care provider; and

(ii) except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(C), (D), or (E), all communications, materials, and information in any form specifically created for or during a medical candor process under Utah Code Title 78B, Chapter 3, Part 4a, Utah Medical Candor Act, including any findings or conclusions from the investigation and any offer of compensation.

(B) Disclosure or use in a medical candor process of any communication, material, or information in any form that contains any information described in paragraph (b)(2)(A)(i) does not waive any privilege or protection against admissibility or discovery of the information under paragraph (b)(2)(A)(i).

(C) Any communication, material, or information in any form that is made or provided in the ordinary course of business, including a medical record or a business record, that is otherwise discoverable or admissible and is not created for or during a medical candor process is not privileged by the use or disclosure of the communication, material or information during a medical candor process.

(D) (i) Any information that is required to be documented in a patient’s medical record under state or federal law is not privileged by the use or disclosure of the information during a medical candor process.

(ii) Information described in paragraph (b)(2)(D)(i) does not include an individual’s mental impressions, conclusions, or opinions that are formed outside the course and scope of the patient’s care and treatment and are used or disclosed in a medial candor process.

(E) (i) Any communication, material or information in any form that is provided to an affected party before the affected party’s written agreement to participate in a medical candor process is not privileged by the use or disclosure of the communication, material, or information during a medical candor process.

(ii) Any communication, material, or information described in paragraph (b)(2)(E)(i) does not include a written notice described in Utah Code section 78B-3-452.

(F) The terms defined in Utah Code section 78B-3-450 apply to paragraphs (b)(2)(A)(ii), (B), (C), (D), and (E).

(G) Nothing in this paragraph (b)(2) shall prevent a party from raising any other privileges provided by law or rule as to the admissibility or discovery of any communication, information, or material described in paragraph (b)(2)(A), (B), (C), (D), or (E).

(3) Proportionality. Discovery and discovery requests are proportional if:

(A) the discovery is reasonable, considering the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, the complexity of the case, the parties' resources, the importance of the issues, and the importance of the discovery in resolving the issues;

(B) the likely benefits of the proposed discovery outweigh the burden or expense;

(C) the discovery is consistent with the overall case management and will further the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of the case;

(D) the discovery is not unreasonably cumulative or duplicative;

(E) the information cannot be obtained from another source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive; and

(F) the party seeking discovery has not had sufficient opportunity to obtain the information by discovery or otherwise, taking into account the parties’ relative access to the information.

(4) Burden. The party seeking discovery always has the burden of showing proportionality and relevance. To ensure proportionality, the court may enter orders under Rule 37.

(5) Electronically stored information. A party claiming that electronically stored information is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost must describe the source of the electronically stored information, the nature and extent of the burden, the nature of the information not provided, and any other information that will enable other parties to evaluate the claim.

(6) Trial preparation materials. A party may obtain otherwise discoverable documents and tangible things prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial by or for another party or by or for that other party's representative (including the party’s attorney, consultant, surety, indemnitor, insurer, or agent) only upon a showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials and that the party is unable without undue hardship to obtain substantially equivalent materials by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials, the court must protect against disclosure of the mental impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party.

(7) Statement previously made about the action. A party may obtain without the showing required in paragraph (b)(5) a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that party. Upon request, a person not a party may obtain without the required showing a statement about the action or its subject matter previously made by that person. If the request is refused, the person may move for a court order under Rule 37. A statement previously made is (A) a written statement signed or approved by the person making it, or (B) a stenographic, mechanical, electronic, or other recording, or a transcription thereof, which is a substantially verbatim recital of an oral statement by the person making it and contemporaneously recorded.

(8) Trial preparation; experts.

(A) Trial-preparation protection for draft reports or disclosures. Paragraph (b)(6) protects drafts of any report or disclosure required under paragraph (a)(4), regardless of the form in which the draft is recorded.

(B) Trial-preparation protection for communications between a party’s attorney and expert witnesses. Paragraph (b)(6) protects communications between the party’s attorney and any witness required to provide disclosures under paragraph (a)(4), regardless of the form of the communications, except to the extent that the communications:

(i) relate to compensation for the expert’s study or testimony;

(ii) identify facts or data that the party’s attorney provided and that the expert considered in forming the opinions to be expressed; or

(iii) identify assumptions that the party’s attorney provided and that the expert relied on in forming the opinions to be expressed.

(C) Expert employed only for trial preparation. Ordinarily, a party may not, by interrogatories or otherwise, discover facts known or opinions held by an expert who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or to prepare for trial and who is not expected to be called as a witness at trial. A party may do so only:

(i) as provided in Rule 35(b); or

(ii) on showing exceptional circumstances under which it is impracticable for the party to obtain facts or opinions on the same subject by other means.

(9) Claims of privilege or protection of trial preparation materials.

(A) Information withheld. If a party withholds discoverable information by claiming that it is privileged or prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial, the party must make the claim expressly and must describe the nature of the documents, communications, or things not produced in a manner that, without revealing the information itself, will enable other parties to evaluate the claim.

(B) Information produced. If a party produces information that the party claims is privileged or prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial, the producing party may notify any receiving party of the claim and the basis for it. After being notified, a receiving party must promptly return, sequester, or destroy the specified information and any copies it has and may not use or disclose the information until the claim is resolved. A receiving party may promptly present the information to the court under seal for a determination of the claim. If the receiving party disclosed the information before being notified, it must take reasonable steps to retrieve it. The producing party must preserve the information until the claim is resolved.

(c) Methods, sequence, and timing of discovery; tiers; limits on standard discovery; extraordinary discovery.

(1) Methods of discovery. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: depositions upon oral examination or written questions; written interrogatories; production of documents or things or permission to enter upon land or other property, for inspection and other purposes; physical and mental examinations; requests for admission; and subpoenas other than for a court hearing or trial.

(2) Sequence and timing of discovery. Methods of discovery may be used in any sequence, and the fact that a party is conducting discovery must not delay any other party's discovery. Except for cases exempt under paragraph (a)(3), a party may not seek discovery from any source before that party’s initial disclosure obligations are satisfied.

(3) Definition of tiers for standard discovery. Actions claiming $50,000 or less in damages are permitted standard discovery as described for Tier 1. Actions claiming more than $50,000 and less than $300,000 in damages are permitted standard discovery as described for Tier 2. Actions claiming $300,000 or more in damages are permitted standard discovery as described for Tier 3. Absent an accompanying damage claim for more than $300,000, actions claiming non-monetary relief are permitted standard discovery as described for Tier 2. Domestic relations actions are permitted standard discovery as described for Tier 4.

(4) Definition of damages. For purposes of determining standard discovery, the amount of damages includes the total of all monetary damages sought (without duplication for alternative theories) by all parties in all claims for relief in the original pleadings.

(5) Limits on standard fact discovery. Standard fact discovery per side (plaintiffs collectively, defendants collectively, and third-party defendants collectively) in each tier is as follows. The days to complete standard fact discovery are calculated from the date the first defendant’s first disclosure is due and do not include expert discovery under paragraphs (a)(4)(C) and (D).

Tier

Amount of Damages

Total Fact Deposition Hours

Rule 33 Interrogatories including all discrete subparts

Rule 34 Requests for Production

Rule 36 Requests for Admission

Days to Complete Standard Fact Discovery

1

$50,000 or less

3

0

5

5

120

2

More than $50,000 and less than $300,000 or non-monetary relief

15

10

10

10

180

3

$300,00 or more

30

20

20

20

210

4

Domestic relations actions

4

10

10

10

90


(6) Extraordinary discovery. To obtain discovery beyond the limits established in paragraph (c)(5), a party must:

(A) before the close of standard discovery and after reaching the limits of standard discovery imposed by these rules, file a stipulated statement that extraordinary discovery is necessary and proportional under paragraph (b)(2) and, for each party represented by an attorney, a statement that the attorney consulted with the client about the request for extraordinary discovery;

(B) before the close of standard discovery and after reaching the limits of standard discovery imposed by these rules, file a request for extraordinary discovery under Rule 37(a) or

(C) obtain an expanded discovery schedule under Rule 100A.

(d) Requirements for disclosure or response; disclosure or response by an organization; failure to disclose; initial and supplemental disclosures and responses.

(1) A party must make disclosures and responses to discovery based on the information then known or reasonably available to the party.

(2) If the party providing disclosure or responding to discovery is a corporation, partnership, association, or governmental agency, the party must act through one or more officers, directors, managing agents, or other persons, who must make disclosures and responses to discovery based on the information then known or reasonably available to the party.

(3) A party is not excused from making disclosures or responses because the party has not completed investigating the case, the party challenges the sufficiency of another party's disclosures or responses, or another party has not made disclosures or responses.

(4) If a party fails to disclose or to supplement timely a disclosure or response to discovery, that party may not use the undisclosed witness, document, or material at any hearing or trial unless the failure is harmless or the party shows good cause for the failure.

(5) If a party learns that a disclosure or response is incomplete or incorrect in some important way, the party must timely serve on the other parties the additional or correct information if it has not been made known to the other parties. The supplemental disclosure or response must state why the additional or correct information was not previously provided.

(e) Signing discovery requests, responses, and objections. Every disclosure, request for discovery, response to a request for discovery, and objection to a request for discovery must be in writing and signed by at least one attorney of record or by the party if the party is not represented. The signature of the attorney or party is a certification under Rule11. If a request or response is not signed, the receiving party does not need to take any action with respect to it. If a certification is made in violation of the rule, the court, upon motion or upon its own initiative, may take any action authorized by Rule11 or Rule37(b).

(f) Filing. Except as required by these rules or ordered by the court, a party must not file with the court a disclosure, a request for discovery, or a response to a request for discovery, but must file only the certificate of service stating that the disclosure, request for discovery, or response has been served on the other parties and the date of service.


Advisory Committee Notes

Note Adopted 2011

Disclosure requirements and timing. Rule 26(a)(1).

Not all information will be known at the outset of a case. If discovery is serving its proper purpose, additional witnesses, documents, and other information will be identified. The scope and the level of detail required in the initial Rule 26(a)(1) disclosures should be viewed in light of this reality. A party is not required to interview every witness it ultimately may call at trial in order to provide a summary of the witness’s expected testimony. As the information becomes known, it should be disclosed. No summaries are required for adverse parties, including management level employees of business entities, because opposing lawyers are unable to interview them and their testimony is available to their own counsel. For uncooperative or hostile witnesses any summary of expected testimony would necessarily be limited to the subject areas the witness is reasonably expected to testify about. For example, defense counsel may be unable to interview a treating physician, so the initial summary may only disclose that the witness will be questioned concerning the plaintiff’s diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. After medical records have been obtained, the summary may be expanded or refined.

Subject to the foregoing qualifications, the summary of the witness’s expected testimony should be just that– a summary. The rule does not require prefiled testimony or detailed descriptions of everything a witness might say at trial. On the other hand, it requires more than the broad, conclusory statements that often were made under the prior version of Rule 26(a)(1)(e.g., “The witness will testify about the events in question” or “The witness will testify on causation.”). The intent of this requirement is to give the other side basic information concerning the subjects about which the witness is expected to testify at trial, so that the other side may determine the witness’s relative importance in the case, whether the witness should be interviewed or deposed, and whether additional documents or information concerning the witness should be sought. See RJW Media Inc. v. Heath, 2017 UT App 34, ¶¶ 23-25, 392 P.3d 956. This information is important because of the other discovery limits contained in Rule 26.

Likewise, the documents that should be provided as part of the Rule 26(a)(1) disclosures are those that a party reasonably believes it may use at trial, understanding that not all documents will be available at the outset of a case. In this regard, it is important to remember that the duty to provide documents and witness information is a continuing one, and disclosures must be promptly supplemented as new evidence and witnesses become known as the case progresses.

Early disclosure of damages information is important. Among other things, it is a critical factor in determining proportionality. The committee recognizes that damages often require additional discovery, and typically are the subject of expert testimony. The Rule is not intended to require expert disclosures at the outset of a case. At the same time, the subject of damages should not simply be deferred until expert discovery. Parties should make a good faith attempt to compute damages to the extent it is possible to do so and must in any event provide all discoverable information on the subject, including materials related to the nature and extent of the damages.

The penalty for failing to make timely disclosures is that the evidence may not be used in the party’s case-in-chief. To make the disclosure requirement meaningful, and to discourage sandbagging, parties must know that if they fail to disclose important information that is helpful to their case, they will not be able to use that information at trial. The courts will be expected to enforce them unless the failure is harmless or the party shows good cause for the failure.

The purpose of early disclosure is to have all parties present the evidence they expect to use to prove their claims or defenses, thereby giving the opposing party the ability to better evaluate the case and determine what additional discovery is necessary and proportional.

Expert disclosures and timing. Rule 26(a)(3). Disclosure of the identity and subjects of expert opinions and testimony is automatic under Rule 26(a)(3) and parties are not required to serve interrogatories or use other discovery devices to obtain this information.

Experts frequently will prepare demonstrative exhibits or other aids to illustrate the expert’s testimony at trial, and the costs for preparing these materials can be substantial. For that reason, these types of demonstrative aids may be prepared and disclosed later, as part of the Rule 26(a)(4) pretrial disclosures when trial is imminent.

If a party elects a written report, the expert must provide a signed report containing a complete statement of all opinions the expert will express and the basis and reasons for them. The intent is not to require a verbatim transcript of exactly what the expert will say at trial; instead the expert must fairly disclose the substance of and basis for each opinion the expert will offer. The expert may not testify in a party’s case in chief concerning any matter that is not fairly disclosed in the report. To achieve the goal of making reports a reliable substitute for depositions, courts are expected to enforce this requirement. If a party elects a deposition, rather than a report, it is up to the party to ask the necessary questions to “lock in” the expert’s testimony. But the expert is expected to be fully prepared on all aspects of his/her trial testimony at the time of the deposition and may not leave the door open for additional testimony by qualifying answers to deposition questions.

There are a number of difficulties inherent in disclosing expert testimony that may be offered from fact witnesses. First, there is often not a clear line between fact and expert testimony. Many fact witnesses have scientific, technical or other specialized knowledge, and their testimony about the events in question often will cross into the area of expert testimony. The rules are not intended to erect artificial barriers to the admissibility of such testimony. Second, many of these fact witnesses will not be within the control of the party who plans to call them at trial. These witnesses may not be cooperative, and may not be willing to discuss opinions they have with counsel. Where this is the case, disclosures will necessarily be more limited. On the other hand, consistent with the overall purpose of the 2011 amendments, a party should receive advance notice if their opponent will solicit expert opinions from a particular witness so they can plan their case accordingly. In an effort to strike an appropriate balance, the rules require that such witnesses be identified and the information about their anticipated testimony should include that which is required under Rule 26(a)(1)(A)(ii), which should include any opinion testimony that a party expects to elicit from them at trial. If a party has disclosed possible opinion testimony in its Rule 26(a)(1)(A)(ii) disclosures, that party is not required to prepare a separate Rule 26 (a)(4)(E) disclosure for the witness. And if that disclosure is made in advance of the witness’s deposition, those opinions should be explored in the deposition and not in a separate expert deposition. Otherwise, the timing for disclosure of non-retained expert opinions is the same as that for retained experts under Rule 26(a)(4)(C) and depends on whether the party has the burden of proof or is responding to another expert.

Scope of discovery—Proportionality. Rule 26(b). Proportionality is the principle governing the scope of discovery. Simply stated, it means that the cost of discovery should be proportional to what is at stake in the litigation.

In the past, the scope of discovery was governed by “relevance” or the “likelihood to lead to discovery of admissible evidence.” These broad standards may have secured just results by allowing a party to discover all facts relevant to the litigation. However, they did little to advance two equally important objectives of the rules of civil procedure—the speedy and inexpensive resolution of every action. Accordingly, the former standards governing the scope of discovery have been replaced with the proportionality standards in subpart (b)(1).

The concept of proportionality is not new. The prior rule permitted the Court to limit discovery methods if it determined that “the discovery was unduly burdensome or expensive, taking into account the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, limitations on the parties’ resources, and the importance of the issues at stake in the litigation.” The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure contains a similar provision. See Fed. R. Civ. P. 26(b)(2) (C).

Any system of rules which permits the facts and circumstances of each case to inform procedure cannot eliminate uncertainty. Ultimately, the trial court has broad discretion in deciding whether a discovery request is proportional. The proportionality standards in subpart (b)(2) and the discovery tiers in subpart (c) mitigate uncertainty by guiding that discretion. The proper application of the proportionality standards will be defined over time by trial and appellate courts.

Standard and extraordinary discovery. Rule 26(c). As a counterpart to requiring more detailed disclosures under Rule 26(a), the 2011 amendments place new limitations on additional discovery the parties may conduct. Because the committee expects the enhanced disclosure requirements will automatically permit each party to learn the witnesses and evidence the opposing side will offer in its case-in-chief, additional discovery should serve the more limited function of permitting parties to find witnesses, documents, and other evidentiary materials that are harmful, rather than helpful, to the opponent’s case.

Parties are expected to be reasonable and accomplish as much as they can during standard discovery. A statement of discovery issues may result in additional discovery and sanctions at the expense of a party who unreasonably fails to respond or otherwise frustrates discovery. After the expiration of the applicable time limitation, a case is presumed to be ready for trial. Actions for nonmonetary relief, such as injunctive relief, are subject to the standard discovery limitations of Tier 2, absent an accompanying monetary claim of $300,000 or more, in which case Tier 3 applies.

Consequences of failure to disclose.Rule 26(d). If a party fails to disclose or to supplement timely its discovery responses, that party cannot use the undisclosed witness, document, or material at any hearing or trial, absent proof that non-disclosure was harmless or justified by good cause. More complete disclosures increase the likelihood that the case will be resolved justly, speedily, and inexpensively. Not being able to use evidence that a party fails properly to disclose provides a powerful incentive to make complete disclosures. This is true only if trial courts hold parties to this standard. Accordingly, although a trial court retains discretion to determine how properly to address this issue in a given case, the usual and expected result should be exclusion of the evidence.

Legislative Note

Note adopted 2012

S.J.R. 15

(1) The amended language in paragraph (b)(1) is intended to incorporate long-standing protections against discovery and admission into evidence of privileged matters connected to medical care review and peer review into the Utah Rules of Civil Procedure. These privileges, found in both Utah common law and statute, include Sections 26-25-3, 58-13-4, and 58-13-5, UCA, 1953. The language is intended to ensure the confidentiality of peer review, care review, and quality assurance processes and to ensure that the privilege is limited only to documents and information created specifically as part of the processes. It does not extend to knowledge gained or documents created outside or independent of the processes. The language is not intended to limit the court's existing ability, if it chooses, to review contested documents in camera in order to determine whether the documents fall within the privilege. The language is not intended to alter any existing law, rule, or regulation relating to the confidentiality, admissibility, or disclosure of proceedings before the Utah Division of Occupational and Professional Licensing. The Legislature intends that these privileges apply to all pending and future proceedings governed by court rules, including administrative proceedings regarding licensing and reimbursement.

(2) The Legislature does not intend that the amendments to this rule be construed to change or alter a final order concerning discovery matters entered on or before the effective date of this amendment.

(3) The Legislature intends to give the greatest effect to its amendment, as legally permissible, in matters that are pending on or may arise after the effective date of this amendment, without regard to when the case was filed.

Effective date. Upon approval by a constitutional two-thirds vote of all members elected to each house. [March 6, 2012]

 

 

Rule 26.1. Disclosure and discovery in domestic relations actions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2021

(a) Scope. This rule applies to the following domestic relations actions: divorce; temporary separation; separate maintenance; parentage; custody; child support; and modification. This rule does not apply to adoptions, enforcement of prior orders, cohabitant abuse protective orders, child protective orders, civil stalking injunctions, or grandparent visitation.

(b) Time for disclosure. In addition to the Initial Disclosures required in Rule 26, in all domestic relations actions, the documents required in this rule must be served on the other parties within 14 days after filing of the first answer to the complaint.

(c) Financial declaration. Each party must serve on all other parties a fully completed Financial Declaration, using the court-approved form, and attachments. Each party must attach to the Financial Declaration the following:

(1) For every item and amount listed in the Financial Declaration, excluding monthly expenses, copies of statements verifying the amounts listed on the Financial Declaration that are reasonably available to the party.

(2) For the two tax years before the petition was filed, complete federal and state income tax returns, including Form W-2 and supporting tax schedules and attachments, filed by or on behalf of that party or by or on behalf of any entity in which the party has a majority or controlling interest, including, but not limited to, Form 1099 and Form K-1 with respect to that party.

(3) Pay stubs and other evidence of all earned and un-earned income for the 12 months before the petition was filed.

(4) All loan applications and financial statements prepared or used by the party within the 12 months before the petition was filed.

(5) Documents verifying the value of all real estate in which the party has an interest, including, but not limited to, the most recent appraisal, tax valuation and refinance documents.

(6) All statements for the 3 months before the petition was filed for all financial accounts, including, but not limited to checking, savings, money market funds, certificates of deposit, brokerage, investment, retirement, regardless of whether the account has been closed including those held in that party’s name, jointly with another person or entity, or as a trustee or guardian, or in someone else’s name on that party’s behalf.

(7) If the foregoing documents are not reasonably available or are in the possession of the other party, the party disclosing the Financial Declaration must estimate the amounts entered on the Financial Declaration, the basis for the estimation and an explanation why the documents are not available.

(d) Certificate of service. Each party must file a Certificate of Service with the court certifying that he or she has provided the Financial Declaration and attachments to the other party.

(e)Exemptions.

(1) Agencies of the State of Utah are not subject to these disclosure requirements.

(2) In cases where assets are not at issue, such as paternity, modification, and grandparents’ rights, a party must only serve:

(A) the party’s last three current paystubs and the previous year tax return;

(B) six months of bank and profit and loss statements if the party is self-employed; and

(C) proof of any other assets or income relevant to the determination of a child support award.

The court may require the parties to complete a full Financial Declaration for purposes of determining an attorney fee award or for any other reason. Any party may by motion or through the discovery process also request completion of a full Financial Declaration.

(f) Sanctions. Failure to fully disclose all assets and income in the Financial Declaration and attachments may subject the non-disclosing party to sanctions under Rule 37 including an award of non-disclosed assets to the other party, attorney’s fees or other sanctions deemed appropriate by the court.

(g) Failure to comply. Failure of a party to comply with this rule does not preclude any other party from obtaining a default judgment, proceeding with the case, or seeking other relief from the court.

(h) Notice of requirements. Notice of the requirements of this rule must be served on the other party and all joined parties with the initial petition.

 

 

Rule 26.2. Disclosures in personal injury actions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Scope. This rule applies to all actions seeking damages arising out of personal physical injuries or physical sickness.

(b) Plaintiff's additional initial disclosures. Except to the extent that plaintiff moves for a protective order, plaintiff’s Rule 26(a) disclosures shall also include:

(b)(1) A list of all health care providers who have treated or examined the plaintiff for the injury at issue, including the name, address, approximate dates of treatment, and a general description of the reason for the treatment.

(b)(2) A list of all other health care providers who treated or examined the plaintiff for any reason in the 5 years before the event giving rise to the claim, including the name, address, approximate dates of treatment, and a general description of the reason for the treatment.

(b)(3) Plaintiff’s Social Security number (SSN) or Medicare health insurance claim number (HICN), full name, and date of birth. The SSN and HICN may be used only for the purposes of the action, including compliance with the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007, unless otherwise ordered by the court.

(b)(4) A description of all disability or income-replacement benefits received if loss of wages or loss of earning capacity is claimed, including the amounts,payor'sname and address, and the duration of the benefits.

(b)(5) A list of plaintiff’s employers for the 5 years preceding the event giving rise to the claim if loss of wages or loss of earning capacity is claimed, including the employer’s name and address and plaintiff’s job description, wage, and benefits.

(b)(6) Copies of all bills, statements, or receipts for medical care, prescriptions, or other out-of-pocket expenses incurred as a result of the injury at issue.

(b)(7) Copies of all investigative reports prepared by any public official or agency and in the possession of plaintiff or counsel that describe the event giving rise to the claim.

(b)(8) Except as protected by Rule 26(b)(5), copies of all written or recorded statements of individuals, in the possession of plaintiff or counsel, regarding the event giving rise to the claim or the nature or extent of the injury.

(c) Defendant's additional disclosures. Defendant’s Rule 26(a) disclosures shall also include:

(c)(1) A statement of the amount of insurance coverage applicable to the claim, including any potential excess coverage, and any deductible, self-insured retention, or reservations of rights, giving the name and address of the insurer.

(c)(2) Unless the plaintiff makes a written request for a copy of an entire insurance policy to be disclosed under Rule 26(a)(1)(D), it is sufficient for the defendant to disclose a copy of the declaration page or coverage sheet for any policy covering the claim.

(c)(3) Copies of all investigative reports, prepared by any public official or agency and in the possession of defendant, defendant’s insurers, or counsel, that describe the event giving rise to the claim.

(c)(4) Except as protected by Rule 26(b)(5), copies of all written or recorded statements of individuals, in the possession of defendant, defendant’s insurers, or counsel, regarding the event giving rise to the claim or the nature or extent of the injury.

(c)(5) The information required by Rule 9(l).


Advisory Committee Note

This rule requires disclosure of the key fact elements that are typically requested in initial interrogatories in personal injury actions. The Medicare information disclosure, including Social Security numbers, is designed to facilitate compliance with the requirements for insurers under 42 U.S.C. § 1395y(b)(8)(C). See, Hackley v. Garofano, 2010 WL 3025597 (Conn.Super.) and Seger v. Tank Connection, 2010 WL 1665253 (D.Neb.).

The committee anticipates full disclosures in most cases as a matter of course. However, there may be rare circumstances warranting a protective order in which a party would otherwise have to disclose particularly sensitive information wholly unrelated to the injury at issue, such as a particularly sensitive healthcare procedure or treatment. Information and documents not included in the application for a protective order must be provided within the timeframe of this rule.

This rule is intended to apply to actions based on personal injury and personal sickness using the broad definitions under 26 U.S.C. Sec. 104(a)(2). This includes wrongful death actions, in which case the disclosures will usually be of the decedent’s records rather than of the plaintiff’s, and emotional distress accompanied by physical injury or physical sickness.

 

 

Rule 26.3. Disclosure in unlawful detainer actions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2018

(a) Scope. This rule applies to all actions for eviction or damages arising out of an unlawful detainer under Title 78B, Chapter 6, Part 8, Forcible Entry and Detainer.

(b) Plaintiff's disclosures.

(b)(1) Disclosures served with complaint and summons. Instead of the disclosures and timing of disclosures required by Rule 26(a), and unless included in the complaint, the plaintiff must serve on the defendant with the summons and complaint:

(b)(1)(A) any written rental agreement;

(b)(1)(B) the eviction notice that was served;

(b)(1)(C) an itemized calculation of rent past due, damages, costs and attorney fees at the time of filing;

(b)(1)(D) an explanation of the factual basis for the eviction; and

(b)(1)(E) notice to the defendant of the defendant’s obligation to serve the disclosures required by paragraph (c).

(b)(2) Disclosures for evidentiary hearing.

(b)(2)(A) If the plaintiff requests an evidentiary hearing under Section 78B-6-810, the plaintiff must serve on the defendant with the request:

(b)(2)(A)(i) any document not yet disclosed that the plaintiff will offer at the hearing; and

(b)(2)(A)(ii) the name and, if known, the address and telephone number of each fact witness the plaintiff may call at the evidentiary hearing and, except for an adverse party, a summary of the expected testimony.

(b)(2)(B) If the defendant requests an evidentiary hearing under Section 78B-6-810, the plaintiff must serve the disclosures required by paragraph (b)(2)(A) on the defendant no less than 2 days before the hearing. The plaintiff must serve the disclosures by the method most likely to be promptly received.

(c) Defendant's disclosures for evidentiary hearing.

(c)(1) If the defendant requests an evidentiary hearing under Section 78B-6-810, the defendant must serve on the plaintiff with the request:

(c)(1)(A) any document not yet disclosed that the defendant will offer at the hearing; and

(c)(1)(B) the name and, if known, the address and telephone number of each fact witness the defendant may call at the evidentiary hearing and, except for an adverse party, a summary of the expected testimony.

(c)(2) If the plaintiff requests an evidentiary hearing under Section 78B-6-810, the defendant must serve the disclosures required by paragraph (c)(1) on the plaintiff no less than 2 days before the hearing. The defendant must serve the disclosures by the method most likely to be promptly received.

(d) Pretrial disclosures; objections. No later than 14 days before trial, the parties must serve the disclosures required by Rule 26(a)(5)(A). No later than 7 days before trial, each party must serve and file counter designations of deposition testimony, objections and grounds for the objections to the use of a deposition and to the admissibility of exhibits.


 

 

Rule 26.4. Provisions governing disclosure and discovery in contested proceedings under Title 75 of the Utah Code.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 1/1/2020

(a) Scope. This rule applies to all contested actions arising under Title 75 of the Utah Code.

(b) Definition. A probate dispute is a contested action arising under Title 75 of the Utah Code.

(c) Designation of parties, objections, initial disclosures, and discovery.

(c)(1) Designation of Parties. For purposes of Rule 26, the plaintiff in probate proceedings is presumed to be the petitioner in the matter, and the defendant is presumed to be any party who has made an objection. Once a probate dispute arises, and based on the facts and circumstances of the case, the court may designate an interested person as plaintiff, defendant, or non-party for purposes of discovery. Only an interested person who has appeared on the record will be treated as a party for purposes of discovery.

(c)(2) Objection to the petition.

(c)(2)(A) Any oral objection made at a hearing on the petition must then be put into writing and filed with the court within 7 days, unless the written objection has been previously filed with the court. The court may for good cause, including in order to accommodate a person with a disability, waive the requirement of a writing and document the objection in the court record.

(c)(2)(B) A written objection must set forth the grounds for the objection and any supporting authority, must be filed with the court, and must be mailed to the parties named in the petition and any “interested persons,” as that term is defined in Utah Code § 75-1-201, unless the written objection has been previously filed with the court.

(c)(2)(C) If the petitioner and objecting party agree to an extension of time to file the written objection, notice of the agreed upon date must be filed with the court.

(c)(2)(D) The court may modify the timing for making an objection in accordance with Rule 6(b).

(c)(2)(E) In the event no written objection is timely filed, the court will act on the original petition upon the petitioner’s filing of a request to submit pursuant to Rule 7.

(c)(3) Initial disclosures in guardianship and conservatorship matters.

(c)(3)(A) In addition to the disclosures required by Rule 26(a), and unless included in the petition, the following documents must be served by the party in possession or control of the documents within 14 days after a written objection has been filed:

(c)(3)(A)(i) any document purporting to nominate a guardian or conservator, including a will, trust, power of attorney, or advance healthcare directive, copies of which must be served upon all interested persons; and

(c)(3)(A)(ii) a list of less restrictive alternatives to guardianship or conservatorship that the petitioner has explored and ways in which a guardianship or conservatorship of the respondent may be limited.

This paragraph supersedes Rule 26(a)(2).

(c)(3)(B) The initial disclosure documents must be served on the parties named in the probate petition and the objection and anyone who has requested notice under Title 75 of the Utah Code:

(c)(3)(C) If there is a dispute regarding the validity of an original document, the proponent of the original document must make it available for inspection by any other party within 14 days of the date of referral to mediation unless the parties agree to a different date.

(c)(3)(D) The court may for good cause modify the content and timing of the disclosures required in this rule or in Rule 26(a) in accordance with Rule 6(b).

(c)(4) Initial disclosures in all other probate matters.

(c)(4)(A) In addition to the disclosures required by Rule 26(a), and unless included in the petition, the following documents must be served by the party in possession or control of the documents within 14 days after a written objection has been filed: any other document purporting to nominate a personal representative or trustee after death, including wills, trusts, and any amendments to those documents, copies of which must be served upon all interested persons. This paragraph supersedes Rule 26(a)(2).

(c)(4)(B) The initial disclosure documents must be served on the parties named in the probate petition and the objection and anyone who has requested notice under Title 75 of the Utah Code.

(c)(4)(C) If there is a dispute regarding the validity of an original document, the proponent of the original document must make it available for inspection by the contesting party within 14 days of the date of referral to mediation unless the parties agree to a different date.

(c)(4)(D)The court may for good cause modify the content and timing of the disclosures required in this rule or in Rule 26(a) in accordance with Rule 6(b).

(c)(5) Discovery once a probate dispute arises. Except as provided in this rule or as otherwise ordered by the court, once a probate dispute arises, discovery will proceed pursuant to the Rules of Civil Procedure, including the other provisions of Rule 26.

(d) Pretrial disclosures under Rule 26(a)(5). The term “trial” in Rule 26(a)(5)(B) also refers to evidentiary hearings for purposes of this rule.


 

 

Rule 27. Depositions before action or pending appeal.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2014

(a) Before action.

(a)(1) Petition. A person who desires to perpetuate testimony regarding any matter that may be cognizable in any court of this state may file a verified petition in the district court of the county in which any expected adverse party may reside. The petition shall be entitled in the name of the petitioner and shall state: (1) that the petitioner expects to be a party to an action cognizable in a court of this state but is presently unable to bring it or cause it to be brought, (2) the subject matter of the expected action and the petitioner's interest therein, (3) the facts to be established by the proposed testimony and the reasons to perpetuate it, (4) the names or a description of the persons expected to be adverse parties and their addresses so far as known, and (5) the names and addresses of the persons to be examined and the substance of the testimony expected to be elicited from each, and shall ask for an order authorizing the petitioner to take the depositions of the persons to be examined named in the petition, for the purpose of perpetuating their testimony.

(a)(2) Notice and service. The petitioner shall thereafter serve a notice upon each person named in the petition as an expected adverse party, together with a copy of the petition, stating that the petitioner will apply to the court, at a time and place named therein, for the order described in the petition. At least 21 days before the date of hearing the notice shall be served either within or without the district or state in the manner provided in Rule 4(d) for service of summons; but if such service cannot with due diligence be made upon any expected adverse party named in the petition, the court may make such order as is just for service by publication or otherwise, and shall appoint, for persons not served in the manner provided in Rule 4(d), an attorney who shall represent them, and, in case they are not otherwise represented, shall cross-examine the deponent. If any expected adverse party is a minor or incompetent the provisions of Rule 17(c) apply.

(a)(3) Order and examination. If the court is satisfied that the perpetuation of the testimony may prevent a failure or delay of justice, it shall make an order designating or describing the persons whose depositions may be taken and specifying the subject matter of the examination and whether the depositions shall be taken upon oral examination or written interrogatories. The depositions may then be taken in accordance with these rules; and the court may make orders of the character provided for by Rules 34 and 35. For the purpose of applying these rules to depositions for perpetuating testimony, each reference therein to the court in which the action is pending shall be deemed to refer to the court in which the petition for such deposition was filed.

(a)(4) Use of deposition. If a deposition to perpetuate testimony is taken under these rules or if, although not so taken, it would be admissible in evidence in the courts of the state in which it is taken, it may be used in any action involving the same subject matter subsequently brought in any court of this state, in accordance with the provisions of Rule 32(a).

(b) Pending appeal.If an appeal has been taken from a judgment of a district court or before the taking of an appeal if the time therefor has not expired, the district court in which the judgment was rendered may allow the taking of the depositions of witnesses to perpetuate their testimony for use in the event of further proceedings in such court. In such case the party who desires to perpetuate the testimony may make a motion in the district court for leave to take the depositions, upon the same notice and service thereof as if the action was pending in the district court. The motion shall show (1) the names and addresses of persons to be examined and the substance of the testimony which expected to be elicited from each; and (2) the reasons for perpetuating their testimony. If the court finds that the perpetuation of the testimony is proper to avoid a failure or delay of justice, it may make an order allowing the depositions to be taken and may make orders of the character provided for by Rules 34 and 35, and thereupon the depositions may be taken and used in the same manner and under the same conditions as are prescribed in these rules for depositions taken in actions pending in the district court.

(c) Perpetuation by action. This rule does not limit the power of a court to entertain an action to perpetuate testimony.


Advisory Committee Notes

For a complete explanation of the 1999 amendments to this rule and the interrelationship of these amendments with the other discovery changes, see the advisory committee note appended to Rule 26. The Supreme Court order approving the amendments directed that the new procedures be applicable only to cases filed on or after November 1, 1999.

 

 

Rule 28. Persons before whom depositions may be taken.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Within the United States. Within the United States or within a territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, depositions shall be taken before an officer authorized to administer oaths by the laws of the United States or of the place where the examination is held, or before a person appointed by the court in which the action is pending. A person so appointed has power to administer oaths and take testimony. The term "officer" as used in Rules 30, 31, and 32 includes a person appointed by the court or designated by the parties under Rule 29.

(b) In foreign countries. In a foreign country, depositions may be taken (1) on notice before a person authorized to administer oaths in the place in which the examination is held, either by the law thereof or by the law of the United States, or (2) before a person commissioned by the court, and a person so commissioned shall have the power by virtue of his commission to administer any necessary oath and take testimony, or (3) pursuant to a letter rogatory. A commission or a letter rogatory shall be issued on application and notice and on terms that are just and appropriate. It is not requisite to the issuance of a commission or a letter rogatory that the taking of the deposition in any other manner is impracticable or inconvenient; and both a commission and a letter rogatory may be issued in proper cases. A notice or commission may designate the person before whom the deposition is to be taken either by name or descriptive title. A letter rogatory may be addressed "To the Appropriate Authority in [here name of country]." Evidence obtained in response to a letter rogatory need not be excluded merely for the reason that it is not a verbatim transcript or that the testimony was not taken under oath or for any similar departure from the requirements for depositions taken within the United States under these rules.

(c) Disqualification for interest. No deposition shall be taken before a person who is a relative or employee or attorney or counsel of any of the parties, or is a relative or employee of such attorney or counsel, or is financially interested in the action.

 

 

Rule 29. Stipulations regarding disclosure and discovery procedure.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2011

The parties may modify the limits and procedures for disclosure and discovery by filing, before the close of standard discovery and after reaching the limits of standard discovery imposed by these rules, a stipulated statement that the extraordinary discovery is necessary and proportional under Rule 26(b)(2) and that each party has reviewed and approved a discovery budget. Stipulations extending the time for disclosure or discovery do not require a statement regarding proportionality or discovery budgets. Stipulations extending the time for or limits of disclosure or discovery require court approval only if the extension would interfere with a court order for completion of discovery or with the date of a hearing or trial.

 

 

Rule 30. Depositions upon oral questions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2011

(a)When depositions may be taken; when leave required. A party may depose a party or witness by oral questions. A witness may not be deposed more than once in standard discovery. An expert who has prepared a report disclosed under Rule 26(a)(4)(B) may not be deposed.

(b)Notice of deposition; general requirements; special notice; non-stenographic recording; production of documents and things; deposition of organization; deposition by telephone.

(b)(1) The party deposing a witness shall give reasonable notice in writing to every other party. The notice shall state the date, time and place for the deposition and the name and address of each witness. If the name of a witness is not known, the notice shall describe the witness sufficiently to identify the person or state the class or group to which the person belongs. The notice shall designate any documents and tangible things to be produced by a witness. The notice shall designate the officer who will conduct the deposition.

(b)(2) The notice shall designate the method by which the deposition will be recorded. With prior notice to the officer, witness and other parties, any party may designate a recording method in addition to the method designated in the notice. Depositions may be recorded by sound, sound-and-visual, or stenographic means, and the party designating the recording method shall bear the cost of the recording. The appearance or demeanor of witnesses or attorneys shall not be distorted through recording techniques.

(b)(3) A deposition shall be conducted before an officer appointed or designated under Rule 28 and shall begin with a statement on the record by the officer that includes (A) the officer's name and business address; (B) the date, time and place of the deposition; (C) the name of the witness; (D) the administration of the oath or affirmation to the witness; and (E) an identification of all persons present. If the deposition is recorded other than stenographically, the officer shall repeat items (A) through (C) at the beginning of each unit of the recording medium. At the end of the deposition, the officer shall state on the record that the deposition is complete and shall state any stipulations.

(b)(4) The notice to a party witness may be accompanied by a request under Rule 34 for the production of documents and tangible things at the deposition. The procedure of Rule 34 shall apply to the request. The attendance of a nonparty witness may be compelled by subpoena under Rule 45. Documents and tangible things to be produced shall be stated in the subpoena.

(b)(5) A deposition may be taken by remote electronic means. A deposition taken by remote electronic means is considered to be taken at the place where the witness is located.

(b)(6) A party may name as the witness a corporation, a partnership, an association, or a governmental agency, describe with reasonable particularity the matters on which questioning is requested, and direct the organization to designate one or more officers, directors, managing agents, or other persons to testify on its behalf. The organization shall state, for each person designated, the matters on which the person will testify. A subpoena shall advise a nonparty organization of its duty to make such a designation. The person so designated shall testify as to matters known or reasonably available to the organization.

(c)Examination and cross-examination; objections.

(c)(1) Questioning of witnesses may proceed as permitted at the trial under the Utah Rules of Evidence, except Rules 103 and 615.

(c)(2) All objections shall be recorded, but the questioning shall proceed, and the testimony taken subject to the objections. Any objection shall be stated concisely and in a non-argumentative and non-suggestive manner. A person may instruct a witness not to answer only to preserve a privilege, to enforce a limitation on evidence directed by the court, or to present a motion for a protective order under Rule 37. Upon demand of the objecting party or witness, the deposition shall be suspended for the time necessary to make a motion. The party taking the deposition may complete or adjourn the deposition before moving for an order to compel discovery under Rule 37.

(d)Limits. During standard discovery, oral questioning of a nonparty shall not exceed four hours, and oral questioning of a party shall not exceed seven hours.

(e)Submission to witness; changes; signing. Within 28 days after being notified by the officer that the transcript or recording is available, a witness may sign a statement of changes to the form or substance of the transcript or recording and the reasons for the changes. The officer shall append any changes timely made by the witness.

(f)Record of deposition; certification and delivery by officer; exhibits; copies.

(f)(1) The officer shall record the deposition or direct another person present to record the deposition. The officer shall sign a certificate, to accompany the record, that the witness was under oath or affirmation and that the record is a true record of the deposition. The officer shall keep a copy of the record. The officer shall securely seal the record endorsed with the title of the action and marked "Deposition of (name). Do not open." and shall promptly send the sealed record to the attorney or the party who designated the recording method. An attorney or party receiving the record shall store it under conditions that will protect it against loss, destruction, tampering, or deterioration.

(f)(2) Every party may inspect and copy documents and things produced for inspection and must have a fair opportunity to compare copies and originals. Upon the request of a party, documents and things produced for inspection shall be marked for identification and added to the record. If the witness wants to retain the originals, that person shall offer the originals to be copied, marked for identification and added to the record.

(f)(3) Upon payment of reasonable charges, the officer shall furnish a copy of the record to any party or to the witness.

(g)Failure to attend or to serve subpoena; expenses. If the party giving the notice of a deposition fails to attend or fails to serve a subpoena upon a witness who fails to attend, and another party attends in person or by attorney, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to the other party the reasonable costs, expenses and attorney fees incurred.

(h)Deposition in action pending in another state. Any party to an action in another state may take the deposition of any person within this state in the same manner and subject to the same conditions and limitations as if such action were pending in this state. Notice of the deposition shall be filed with the clerk of the court of the county in which the person whose deposition is to be taken resides or is to be served. Matters required to be submitted to the court shall be submitted to the court in the county where the deposition is being taken.

(i)Stipulations regarding deposition procedures. The parties may by written stipulation provide that depositions may be taken before any person, at any time or place, upon any notice, and in any manner and when so taken may be used like other depositions.

 

 

Rule 31. Depositions upon written questions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2011

(a) A party may depose a party or witness by written questions. Rules 30 and 45 apply to depositions upon written questions, except insofar as by their nature they are clearly inapplicable.

(b) A party taking a deposition using written questions shall serve on the parties a notice which includes the name or description and address of the deponent, the name or descriptive title of the officer before whom the deposition will be taken, and the questions to be asked.

(c) Within 14 days after the questions are served, a party may serve cross questions. Within 7 days after being served with cross questions, a party may serve redirect questions. Within 7 days after being served with redirect questions, a party may serve re-cross questions.

(d) A copy of the notice and copies of all questions served shall be delivered by the party taking the deposition to the designated officer who shall proceed promptly to ask the questions and prepare a record of the responses.

(e) During standard discovery, a deposition by written questioning shall not cumulatively exceed 15 questions, including discrete subparts, by the plaintiffs collectively, by the defendants collectively or by third-party defendants collectively.

 

 

Rule 32. Use of depositions in court proceedings.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Use of depositions. At the trial or upon the hearing of a motion or an interlocutory proceeding, any part or all of a deposition, so far as admissible under the rules of evidence applied as though the witness were then present and testifying, may be used against any party who was present or represented at the taking of the deposition or who had reasonable notice thereof, in accordance with any of the following provisions:

(a)(1) Any deposition may be used by any party for the purpose of contradicting or impeaching the testimony of a deponent as a witness or for any other purpose permitted by the Utah Rules of Evidence.

(a)(2) The deposition of a party or of anyone who at the time of taking the deposition was an officer, director, or managing agent, or a person designated under Rule 30(b)(6) or 31(a) to testify on behalf of a public or private corporation, partnership or association or governmental agency which is a party may be used by an adverse party for any purpose.

(a)(3) The deposition of a witness, whether or not a party, may be used by any party for any purpose if the court finds:

(a)(3)(A) that the witness is dead; or

(a)(3)(B) that the witness is at a greater distance than 100 miles from the place of trial or hearing, or is out of the United States, unless it appears that the absence of the witness was procured by the party offering the deposition; or

(a)(3)(C) that the witness is unable to attend or testify because of age, illness, infirmity, or imprisonment; or

(a)(3)(D) that the party offering the deposition has been unable to procure the attendance of the witness by subpoena; or

(a)(3)(E) upon application and notice, that such exceptional circumstances exist as to make it desirable, in the interest of justice and with due regard to the importance of presenting the testimony of witnesses orally in open court, to allow the deposition to be used.

(a)(4) If only part of a deposition is offered in evidence by a party, an adverse party may require him to introduce any other part which ought in fairness to be considered with the part introduced, and any party may introduce any other parts.

Substitution of parties pursuant to Rule 25 does not affect the right to use depositions previously taken; and when an action has been brought in any court of the United States or of any state and another action involving the same subject matter is afterward brought between the same parties or their representatives or successors in interest, all depositions lawfully taken and duly filed in the former action may be used in the latter as if originally taken therefor. A deposition previously taken may also be used as permitted by the Utah Rules of Evidence.

(b) Objections to admissibility. Subject to the provisions of Rule 28(b) and Subdivision (c)(3) of this rule, objection may be made at the trial or hearing to receiving in evidence any deposition or part thereof for any reason which would require the exclusion of the evidence if the witness were then present and testifying.

(c) Effect of errors and irregularities.

(c)(1) As to notice. All errors and irregularities in the notice for taking a deposition are waived unless written objection is promptly served upon the party giving the notice.

(c)(2) As to disqualification of officer. Objection to taking a deposition because of disqualification of the officer before whom it is to be taken is waived unless made before the taking of the deposition begins or as soon thereafter as the disqualification becomes known or could be discovered with reasonable diligence.

(c)(3) As to taking of deposition.

(c)(3)(A) Objections to the competency of a witness or to the competency, relevancy, or materiality of testimony are not waived by failure to make them before or during the taking of the deposition, unless the ground of the objection is one which might have been obviated or removed if presented at that time.

(c)(3)(B) Errors and irregularities occurring at the oral examination in the manner of taking the deposition, in the form of the questions or answers, in the oath or affirmation, or in the conduct of parties, and errors of any kind which might be obviated, removed, or cured if promptly presented are waived unless seasonable objection thereto is made at the taking of the deposition.

(c)(3)(C) Objections to the form of written questions submitted under Rule 31 are waived unless served in writing upon the party propounding them within the time allowed for serving the succeeding cross or other questions and within 5 days after service of the last questions authorized.

(c)(4) As to completion and return of deposition. Errors and irregularities in the manner in which the testimony is transcribed or the deposition is prepared, signed, certified, sealed, endorsed, transmitted, filed, or otherwise dealt with by the officer under Rules 30 and 31 are waived unless a motion to suppress the deposition or some part thereof is made with reasonable promptness after such defect is, or with due diligence might have been, ascertained.

(d) Publication of deposition. Use of a deposition under Subsection (a) of this rule shall have the effect of publishing the deposition unless the court orders otherwise in response to objections.

(e) Except as otherwise directed by the court, a party offering deposition testimony pursuant to this rule may offer it in stenographic or nonstenographic form, but, if in nonstenographic form, the party shall also provide the court with a transcript of the portions so offered.


Advisory Committee Notes

For a complete explanation of the 1999 amendments to this rule and the interrelationship of these amendments with the other discovery changes, see the advisory committee note appended to Rule 26. The Supreme Court order approving the amendments directed that the new procedures be applicable only to cases filed on or after November 1, 1999.

 

 

Rule 33. Interrogatories to parties.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2011

(a) Availability; procedures for use. During standard discovery, any party may serve written interrogatories upon any other party, subject to the limits of Rule 26(c)(5). Each interrogatory shall be separately stated and numbered.

(b) Answers and objections. The responding party shall serve a written response within 28 days after service of the interrogatories. The responding party shall restate each interrogatory before responding to it. Each interrogatory shall be answered separately and fully in writing under oath or affirmation, unless it is objected to. If an interrogatory is objected to, the party shall state the reasons for the objection. Any reason not stated is waived unless excused by the court for good cause. An interrogatory is not objectionable merely because an answer involves an opinion or argument that relates to fact or the application of law to fact. The party shall answer any part of an interrogatory that is not objectionable.

(c) Scope; use at trial. Interrogatories may relate to any discoverable matter. Answers may be used as permitted by the Rules of Evidence.

(d) Option to produce business records. If the answer to an interrogatory may be found by inspecting the answering party’s business records, including electronically stored information, and the burden of finding the answer is substantially the same for both parties, the answering party may identify the records from which the answer may be found. The answering party must give the asking party reasonable opportunity to inspect the records and to make copies, compilations, or summaries. The answering party must identify the records in sufficient detail to permit the asking party to locate and to identify them as readily as the answering party.

 

 

Rule 34. Production of documents and things and entry upon land for inspection and other purposes.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2017

(a) Scope.

(a)(1) Any party may serve on any other party a request to produce and permit the requesting party to inspect, copy, test or sample any designated discoverable documents, electronically stored information or tangible things (including writings, drawings, graphs, charts, photographs, sound recordings, images, and other data or data compilations stored in any medium from which information can be obtained, translated, if necessary, by the respondent into reasonably usable form) in the possession or control of the responding party.

(a)(2) Any party may serve on any other party a request to permit entry upon designated property in the possession or control of the responding party for the purpose of inspecting, measuring, surveying, photographing, testing, or sampling the property or any designated discoverable object or operation on the property.

(b) Procedure and limitations.

(b)(1) The request must identify the items to be inspected by individual item or by category, and describe each item and category with reasonable particularity. The request must specify a reasonable date, time, place, and manner of making the inspection and performing the related acts. The request may specify the form or forms in which electronically stored information is to be produced.

(b)(2) The responding party must serve a written response within 28 days after service of the request. The responding party must restate each request before responding to it. The response must state, with respect to each item or category, that inspection and related acts will be permitted as requested, or that the request is objected to. If the party objects to a request, the party must state the reasons for the objection with specificity. Any reason not stated is waived unless excused by the court for good cause. An objection must state by individual item or by category whether any responsive items are being withheld on the basis of that objection. An objection that states the terms that have controlled a search for responsive items qualifies as a statement that items outside of the search terms may have been withheld. The party must identify and permit inspection of items responsive to any part of a request that is not objectionable. If the party objects to the requested form or forms for producing electronically stored information—or if no form was specified in the request—the responding party must state the form or forms it intends to use.

(c) Form of documents and electronically stored information.

(c)(1) A party who produces documents for inspection must produce them as they are kept in the usual course of business or must organize and label them to correspond with the categories in the request.

(c)(2) If a request does not specify the form or forms for producing electronically stored information, a responding party must produce the information in a form or forms in which it is ordinarily maintained or in a form or forms that are reasonably usable.

(c)(3) A party need not produce the same electronically stored information in more than one form.


Advisory Committee Notes

The 2017 amendments to paragraph (b)(2) adopt 1) the specificity requirement in the 2015 amendments to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 34(b)(2)(B), 2) a portion of Federal Rule 34(b)(2)(C) dealing with the basis foran objection to production, and 3) some clarifying language from the federal note.

 

 

Rule 35. Physical and mental examination of persons.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2017

(a) Order for examination. When the mental or physical condition or attribute of a party or of a person in the custody or control of a party is in controversy, the court may order the party to submit to a physical or mental examination by a suitably licensed or certified examiner or to produce for examination the person in the party’s custody or control. The order may be made only on motion for good cause shown. All papers related to the motion and notice of any hearing must be served on a nonparty to be examined. The order must specify the time, place, manner, conditions, and scope of the examination and the person by whom the examination is to be made. The person being examined may record the examination by audio or video means unless the party requesting the examination shows that the recording would unduly interfere with the examination.

(b) Report. The party requesting the examination must disclose a detailed written report of the examiner within the shorter of 60 days after the examination or 7 days prior to the close of fact discovery, setting out the examiner’s findings, including results of all tests performed, diagnoses, and other matters that would routinely be included in an examination record generated by a medical professional. If the party requesting the examination wishes to call the examiner as an expert witness, the party must disclose the examiner as an expert in the time and manner as required by Rule 26(a)(4), but need not provide a separate Rule 26(a)(4) report if the report under this rule contains all the information required by Rule 26(a)(4).

(c) Sanctions. If a party or a person in the custody or under the legal control of a party fails to obey an order entered under paragraph (a), the court on motion may take any action authorized by Rule 37(b), except that the failure cannot be treated as contempt of court.


Advisory Committee Notes

Rule 35 has been substantially revised. A medical examination is not a matter of right, but should only be permitted by the trial court upon a showing of good cause. Rule 35 has always provided, and still provides, that the proponent of an examination must demonstrate good cause for the examination. And, as before, the motion and order should detail the specifics of the proposed examination.

The parties and the trial court should refrain from the use of the phrase “independent medical examiner,” using instead the neutral appellation “medical examiner,” “Rule 35 examiner,” or the like.

The committee has determined that the benefits of recording generally outweigh the downsides in a typical case. The amended rule therefore provides that recording shall be permitted as a matter of course unless the person moving for the examination demonstrates the recording would unduly interfere with the examination.

Nothing in the rule requires that the recording be conducted by a professional, and it is not the intent of the committee that this extra cost should be necessary. The committee also recognizes that recording may require the presence of a third party to manage the recording equipment, but this must be done without interference and as unobtrusively as possible.

The former requirement of Rule 35(c) providing for the production of prior reports on other examinees by the examiner was a source of great confusion and controversy. It is the committee's view that this provision is better eliminated, and in the amended rule there is no longer an automatic requirement for the production of prior reports of other examinations.

A report must be provided for all examinations under this rule. The Rule 35 report is expected to include the same type of content and observations that would be included in a medical record generated by a competent medical professional following an examination of a patient, but need not otherwise include the matters required to be included in a Rule 26(a)(4) expert report. If the examiner is going to be called as an expert witness at trial, then the designation and disclosures under Rule 26(a)(4) are also required, and the opposing party has the option of requiring, in addition to the Rule 35(b) report, the expert’s report or deposition under Rule 26(a)(4)(C). The rule permits a party who furnishes a report under Rule 35 to include within it the expert disclosures required under Rule 26(a)(4) in order to avoid the potential need to generate a separate Rule 26(a)(4) report later if the opposing party elects a report rather than a deposition. But submitting such a combined report will not limit the opposing party’s ability to elect a deposition if the Rule 35 examiner is designated as an expert.


 

 

Rule 36. Request for admission.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2021

(a) Request for admission. A party may serve upon any other party a written request to admit the truth of any discoverable matter set forth in the request, including the genuineness of any document. The matter must relate to statements or opinions of fact or of the application of law to fact. Each matter must be separately stated and numbered. A copy of the document must be served with the request unless it has already been furnished or made available for inspection and copying.

(b) Required caution language on request for admission.

(1) All requests for admission must include the following caution language at the top right corner of the first page of the document, in bold type: You must respond to these requests for admissions within 28 days or the court will consider you to have admitted the truth of the matter as set forth in these requests.

(2)Failure to include the caution language may provide the non-requesting party with a basis under Rule 60(b) for excusable neglect to set aside any resulting order or judgment.

(c) Answer or objection.

(1) The matter is admitted unless, within 28 days after service of the request, the responding party serves upon the requesting party a written response.

(2) The answering party must restate each request before responding to it. Unless the answering party objects to a matter, the party must admit or deny the matter or state in detail the reasons why the party cannot truthfully admit or deny. A party may identify the part of a matter which is true and deny the rest. A denial must fairly meet the substance of the request. Lack of information is not a reason for failure to admit or deny unless, after reasonable inquiry, the information known or reasonably available is insufficient to enable an admission or denial. A party who considers the subject of a request for admission to be a genuine issue for trial may not object on that ground alone but may, subject to Rule 37(c), deny the matter or state the reasons for the failure to admit or deny.

(3) If the party objects to a matter, the party must state the reasons for the objection. Any reason not stated is waived unless excused by the court for good cause. The party must admit or deny any part of a matter that is not objectionable. It is not grounds for objection that the truth of a matter is a genuine issue for trial.

(d) Effect of admission. Any matter admitted under this rule is conclusively established unless the court on motion permits withdrawal or amendment of the admission. The court may permit withdrawal or amendment if the presentation of the merits of the action will be promoted and withdrawal or amendment will not prejudice the requesting party. Any admission under this rule is for the purpose of the pending action only. It is not an admission for any other purpose, nor may it be used in any other action.

 

 

Rule 37. Statement of discovery issues; Sanctions; Failure to admit, to attend deposition or to preserve evidence.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2021

(a) Statement of discovery issues.

(1) A party or the person from whom discovery is sought may request that the judge enter an order regarding any discovery issue, including:

(A) failure to disclose under Rule 26;

(B) extraordinary discovery under Rule 26;

(C) a subpoena under Rule 45;

(D) protection from discovery; or

(E) compelling discovery from a party who fails to make full and complete discovery.

(2) Statement of discovery issues length and content. The statement of discovery issues must be no more than 4 pages, not including permitted attachments, and must include in the following order:

(A) the relief sought and the grounds for the relief sought stated succinctly and with particularity;

(B) a certification that the requesting party has in good faith conferred or attempted to confer with the other affected parties in person or by telephone in an effort to resolve the dispute without court action;

(C) a statement regarding proportionality under Rule 26(b)(2); and

(D) if the statement requests extraordinary discovery, a statement certifying that the party has reviewed and approved a discovery budget.

(3) Objection length and content. No more than 7 days after the statement is filed, any other party may file an objection to the statement of discovery issues. The objection must be no more than 4 pages, not including permitted attachments, and must address the issues raised in the statement.

(4) Permitted attachments. The party filing the statement must attach to the statement only a copy of the disclosure, request for discovery or the response at issue.

(5) Proposed order. Each party must file a proposed order concurrently with its statement or objection.

(6) Decision. Upon filing of the objection or expiration of the time to do so, either party may and the party filing the statement must file a Request to Submit for Decision under Rule 7(g). The court will promptly:

(A) decide the issues on the pleadings and papers;

(B) conduct a hearing, preferably remotely and if remotely, then consistent with the safeguards in Rule 43(b); or

(C) order additional briefing and establish a briefing schedule.

(7) Orders. The court may enter orders regarding disclosure or discovery or to protect a party or person from discovery being conducted in bad faith or from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden or expense, or to achieve proportionality under Rule 26(b)(2), including one or more of the following:

(A) that the discovery not be had or that additional discovery be had;

(B) that the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place;

(C) that the discovery may be had only by a method of discovery other than that selected by the party seeking discovery;

(D) that certain matters not be inquired into, or that the scope of the discovery be limited to certain matters;

(E) that discovery be conducted with no one present except persons designated by the court;

(F) that a deposition after being sealed be opened only by order of the court;

(G) that a trade secret or other confidential information not be disclosed or be disclosed only in a designated way;

(H) that the parties simultaneously deliver specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court;

(I) that a question about a statement or opinion of fact or the application of law to fact not be answered until after designated discovery has been completed or until a pretrial conference or other later time;

(J) that the costs, expenses and attorney fees of discovery be allocated among the parties as justice requires; or

(K) that a party pay the reasonable costs, expenses, and attorney fees incurred on account of the statement of discovery issues if the relief requested is granted or denied, or if a party provides discovery or withdraws a discovery request after a statement of discovery issues is filed and if the court finds that the party, witness, or attorney did not act in good faith or asserted a position that was not substantially justified.

(8) Request for sanctions prohibited. A statement of discovery issues or an objection may include a request for costs, expenses and attorney fees but not a request for sanctions.

(9) Statement of discovery issues does not toll discovery time. A statement of discovery issues does not suspend or toll the time to complete standard discovery.

(b) Motion for sanctions. Unless the court finds that the failure was substantially justified, the court, upon motion, may impose appropriate sanctions for the failure to follow its orders, including the following:

(1) deem the matter or any other designated facts to be established in accordance with the claim or defense of the party obtaining the order;

(2) prohibit the disobedient party from supporting or opposing designated claims or defenses or from introducing designated matters into evidence;

(3) stay further proceedings until the order is obeyed;

(4) dismiss all or part of the action, strike all or part of the pleadings, or render judgment by default on all or part of the action;

(5) order the party or the attorney to pay the reasonable costs, expenses, and attorney fees, caused by the failure;

(6) treat the failure to obey an order, other than an order to submit to a physical or mental examination, as contempt of court; and

(7) instruct the jury regarding an adverse inference.

(c) Motion for costs, expenses and attorney fees on failure to admit. If a party fails to admit the genuineness of a document or the truth of a matter as requested under Rule 36, and if the party requesting the admissions proves the genuineness of the document or the truth of the matter, the party requesting the admissions may file a motion for an order requiring the other party to pay the reasonable costs, expenses and attorney fees incurred in making that proof. The court must enter the order unless it finds that:

(1) the request was held objectionable pursuant to Rule 36(a);

(2) the admission sought was of no substantial importance;

(3) there were reasonable grounds to believe that the party failing to admit might prevail on the matter;

(4) that the request was not proportional under Rule 26(b)(2); or

(5) there were other good reasons for the failure to admit.

(d) Motion for sanctions for failure of party to attend deposition. If a party or an officer, director, or managing agent of a party or a person designated under Rule 30(b)(6) to testify on behalf of a party fails to appear before the officer taking the deposition after service of the notice, any other party may file a motion for sanctions under paragraph (b). The failure to appear may not be excused on the ground that the discovery sought is objectionable unless the party failing to appear has filed a statement of discovery issues under paragraph (a).

(e) Failure to preserve evidence. Nothing in this rule limits the inherent power of the court to take any action authorized by paragraph (b) if a party destroys, conceals, alters, tampers with or fails to preserve a document, tangible item, electronic data or other evidence in violation of a duty. Absent exceptional circumstances, a court may not impose sanctions under these rules on a party for failing to provide electronically stored information lost as a result of the routine, good-faith operation of an electronic information system.


Advisory Committee Notes

The 2011 amendments to Rule 37 make two principal changes. First, the amended Rule 37 consolidates provisions for motions for a protective order (formerly set forth in Rule 26(c)) with provisions for motions to compel.

Second, the amended Rule 37 incorporates the new Rule 26 standard of “proportionality" as a principal criterion on which motions to compel or for a protective order should be evaluated.

Paragraph (a) adopts the expedited procedures for statements of discovery issues formerly found in Rule 4-502 of the Code of Judicial Administration. Statements of discovery issues replace discovery motions, and paragraph (a) governs unless the judge orders otherwise.

 

 

Rule 38. Jury trial of right.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2014

(a) Right preserved. The right of trial by jury as declared by the constitution or as given by statute shall be preserved to the parties.

(b) Demand. Any party may demand a trial by jury of any issue triable of right by a jury by paying the statutory jury fee and serving upon the other parties a demand therefor in writing at any time after the commencement of the action and not later than 14 days after the service of the last pleading directed to such issue. Such demand may be endorsed upon a pleading of the party.

(c) Same: specification of issues. In his demand a party may specify the issues which he wishes so tried; otherwise he shall be deemed to have demanded trial by jury for all the issues so triable. If he has demanded trial by jury for only some of the issues, any other party, within 14 days after service of the demand or such lesser time as the court may order, may serve a demand for trial by jury of any other or all of the issues of fact in the action.

(d) Waiver. The failure of a party to pay the statutory fee, to serve a demand as required by this rule and to file it as required by Rule 5(d) constitutes a waiver by him of trial by jury. A demand for trial by jury made as herein provided may not be withdrawn without the consent of the parties.

 

 

Rule 39. Trial by jury or by the court.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) By jury. When trial by jury has been demanded as provided in Rule 38, the action shall be designated upon the register of actions as a jury action. The trial of all issues so demanded shall be by jury, unless

(a)(1) The parties or their attorneys of record, by written stipulation filed with the court or by an oral stipulation made in open court and entered in the record, consent to trial by the court sitting without a jury, or

(a)(2) The court upon motion or of its own initiative finds that a right of trial by jury of some or all of those issues does not exist, or

(a)(3) Either party to the issue fails to appear at the trial.

(b) By the court. Issues not demanded for trial by jury as provided in Rule 38 shall be tried by the court; but, notwithstanding the failure of a party to demand a jury in an action in which such a demand might have been made of right, the court in its discretion upon motion may order a trial by a jury of any or all issues.

(c) Advisory jury and trial by consent. In all actions not triable of right by a jury the court upon motion or of its own initiative may try any issue with an advisory jury or, with the consent of both parties, may order a trial with a jury whose verdict has the same effect as if trial by jury had been a matter of right.

 

 

Rule 40. Scheduling and postponing a trial.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Scheduling a trial. Until a case is certified in accordance with Rule 16, the court may but is not required to schedule a trial.

(b) Postponement. The court may postpone a trial for good cause upon such terms as are just, including the payment of costs.

(c) Preserving testimony of witnesses. If requested, the court may conduct a hearing to examine and cross-examine any witness present, and the testimony may be read at the trial with the same effect as and subject to the same objections to a deposition under Rule 32.

 

 

Rule 41. Dismissal of actions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2023

(a) Voluntary dismissal; effect.

(1) By the plaintiff.

(A) Subject to Rule 23(e) and any applicable statute, the plaintiff may dismiss an action, a claim, or a party without a court order by filing:

(i) a notice of dismissal before any opposing party serves an answer or a motion for summary judgment; or

(ii) a stipulation of dismissal signed by all parties who have appeared.

(B) Unless the notice or stipulation states otherwise, the dismissal is without prejudice. But if the plaintiff previously dismissed any federal‑ or state‑court action based on or including the same claim, a notice of dismissal operates as an adjudication on the merits.

(2) By court order. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1), an action, a claim, or a party may be dismissed at the plaintiff’s request by court order only on terms the court considers proper. If a defendant has pleaded a counterclaim before being served with the plaintiff's motion to dismiss, the action may be dismissed over the defendant's objection only if the counterclaim can remain pending for independent adjudication by the court. Unless the order states otherwise, a dismissal under this paragraph is without prejudice.

(b) Involuntary dismissal; effect. If the plaintiff fails to prosecute or to comply with these rules or any court order, a defendant may move to dismiss the action or any claim against it. Unless the dismissal order otherwise states, a dismissal under this paragraph and any dismissal not under this rule, other than a dismissal for lack of jurisdiction, improper venue, or failure to join a party under Rule 19, operates as an adjudication on the merits.

(c) Dismissal of counterclaim, crossclaim, or third-party claim. This rule applies to the dismissal of any counterclaim, crossclaim, or third-party claim. A claimant’s voluntary dismissal under paragraph (a)(1) must be made before a responsive pleading is served or, if there is no responsive pleading, before evidence is introduced at a trial or hearing.

(d) Costs of previously-dismissed action. If a plaintiff who previously dismissed an action in any court files an action based on or including the same claim against the same defendant, the court may order the plaintiff to pay all or part of the costs of the previous action and may stay the proceedings until the plaintiff has complied.

(e) Bond or undertaking to be delivered to opposing party. If a party dismisses a complaint, counterclaim, crossclaim, or third-party claim, under paragraph (a)(1) after a provisional remedy has been allowed the party, the bond or undertaking filed in support of the provisional remedy must be delivered to the party against whom the provisional remedy was obtained.


Advisory Committee Note

The 2016 amendments adopt the plain language class of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 41. And, like the federal rule, the 2016 amendments move a central provision of paragraph (b) from this rule to Rule 52(e). Formerly, if a plaintiff had presented its case and the evidence did not support the claim, the court—in a trial by the court—could find for the defendant without having to hear the defendant’s evidence. The equivalent provision now found in Rule 52(e) extends that principle to claims other than the plaintiff’s and, if a party’s evidence on any particular element of the cause of action is complete but insufficient, allows the court to make findings and conclusions and enter judgment accordingly.

In these circumstances the court’s action goes beyond simple dismissal; the court is finding for a party on the merits. This principle more properly belongs in the rule on findings and conclusions than in the rule on dismissing an action.

 

 

Rule 42. Consolidation; separate trials; venue transfer.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 1/1/2021

(a) Consolidation. When actions involving a common question of law or fact or arising from the same transaction or occurrence are pending before the court in one or more judicial districts, the court may, on motion of any party or on the court’s own initiative: order that the actions are consolidated in whole or in part for any purpose, including for discovery, other pretrial matters, or a joint hearing or trial; stay any or all of the proceedings in any action subject to the order; transfer any or all further proceedings in the actions to a location in which any of the actions is pending after consulting with the presiding judge of the transferee court; and make other such orders concerning proceedings therein as may tend to avoid unnecessary costs or delay.

(1) In determining whether to order consolidation and the appropriate location for the consolidated proceedings, the court may consider, among other factors: the complexity of the actions; the importance of any common question of fact or law to the determination of the actions; the risk of duplicative or inconsistent rulings, orders, or judgments; the relative procedural postures of the actions; the risk that consolidation may unreasonably delay the progress, increase the expense, or complicate the processing of any action; prejudice to any party that far outweighs the overall benefits of consolidation; the convenience of the parties, witnesses, and counsel; and the efficient utilization of judicial resources and the facilities and personnel of the court.

(2) A motion to consolidate may be filed or opposed by any party. The motion must be filed in and heard by the judge assigned to the first action filed and must be served on all parties in each action pursuant to Rule 5. A notice of the motion must be filed in each action. The movant must, and any party may, file in each action notice of the order denying or granting the motion.

(3) If the court orders consolidation, a new case number will be used for all subsequent filings in the consolidated case. The court may direct that specified parties pay the expenses, if any, of consolidation. The presiding judge of the transferee court may assign the consolidated case to another judge for good cause.

(b) Separate trials. The court in furtherance of convenience or to avoid prejudice may order a separate trial of any claim, cross claim, counterclaim, or third party claim, or of any separate issue or of any number of claims, cross claims, counterclaims, third party claims, or issues.

(c) Venue Transfer.

(1) On timely motion of any party, where transfer to a proper venue is available, the court must transfer any action filed in an improper venue.

(2) The court must give substantial deference to a plaintiff’s choice of a proper venue. On timely motion of any party, a court may: transfer venue of any action, in whole or in part, to any other venue for any purpose, including for discovery, other pretrial matters, or a joint hearing or trial; stay any or all of the proceedings in the action; and make other such orders concerning proceedings therein to pursue the interests of justice and avoid unnecessary costs or delay. In determining whether to transfer venue and the appropriate venue for the transferred proceedings, the court may consider, among other factors, whether transfer will: increase the likelihood of a fair and impartial determination in the action; minimize expense or inconvenience to parties, witnesses, or the court; decrease delay; avoid hardship or injustice otherwise caused by venue requirements; and advance the interests of justice.

(3) The court may direct that specified parties pay the expenses, if any, of transfer.


Advisory Committee Notes

Note adopted 2020

The addition of paragraph (c) arose in part from the Supreme Court’s decision inDavis County v. Purdue Pharma, L.P, 2020 UT 17.

 

 

Rule 43. Evidence.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2022

(a) Form. In all trials and evidentiary hearings, the testimony of a witness must be taken in open court, unless otherwise provided by these rules, the Utah Rules of Evidence, or a statute of this state. In civil proceedings, the court may, upon request or on its own order, and for good cause and with appropriate safeguards, permit remote testimony in open court. Remote testimony will be presented via videoconference if reasonably feasible, or if not, via telephone or assistive device.

(b) Remote testimony safeguards.No hearing may proceed unless the court ensures that all necessary remote testimony safeguards are provided, by the court or by the parties. An objection to a lack of safeguards is waived unless timely made. Remote testimony safeguards must include:

(1) a notice of (i) the date, time, and method of transmission; (ii) instructions for participation, and (iii) contact information for technical assistance;

(2) a verbatim record of the testimony;

(3) upon request to the court, access to the technology and resources to participate, including an interpreter, telephone, or assistive device;

(4) a court-provided or party-provided means for a party and the party’s counsel to communicate confidentially;

(5) a court-provided or party-provided means for the party and the party’s counsel to share documents, photos, and other electronic materials among the remote participants; and

(6) any other measures the court deems necessary to maintain the integrity of the proceedings.

(c) Remote hearing oath. An oath in substantially the following form must be given prior to any remote hearing testimony: “You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that the evidence you shall give in this matter shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, and that you will neither communicate with, nor receive any communications from, another person during your testimony unless authorized by the court, so help you God (or, under the pains and penalties of perjury).”

(d) Evidence on motions. When a motion is based on facts not in the record, the court may hear the matter on affidavits, declarations, oral testimony, or depositions.


 

 

Rule 44. Proof of official record.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Authentication of copy. An official record or an entry therein, when admissible for any purpose, may be evidenced by an official publication thereof or by a copy attested by the officer having the legal custody of the record, or by his deputy, and in the absence of judicial knowledge or competent evidence, accompanied with a certificate that such officer has the custody. If the office in which the record is kept is within the United States or within a territory or insular possession subject to the dominion of the United States, the certificate may be made by a judge of a court of record of the district or political subdivision in which the record is kept, authenticated by the seal of the court, or may be made by any public officer having a seal of office and having official duties in the district or political subdivision in which the record is kept, authenticated by the seal of his office. If the office in which the record is kept is in a foreign state or country, the certificate may be made by a secretary of embassy or legation, consul general, consul, vice consul, or consular agent or by any officer in the foreign service of the United States stationed in the foreign state or country in which the record is kept, and authenticated by the seal of his office.

(b) Proof of lack of record. A written statement signed by an officer having the custody of an official record or by his deputy that after diligent search no record or entry of a specified tenor is found to exist in the records of his office, accompanied by a certificate as above provided, is admissible as evidence that the records of his office contain no such record or entry.

(c) Other proof. This rule does not prevent the proof of official records or of entry or lack of entry therein by any method authorized by any applicable statute or by the rules of evidence at common law.

(d) Certified copy of record read in evidence. A copy of any official record, or entry therein, in the custody of a public officer of this state, or of the United States, certified by the officer having custody thereof, to be a full, true and correct copy of the original in his custody, may be read in evidence in an action or proceeding in the courts of this state, in like manner and with like effect as the original could be if produced.

(e) Official record defined. As used in this rule "official record" shall mean all public writings, including laws, judicial records, all official documents, and public records of private writings.

(f) Proof of the law of another state, territory or foreign country. A printed copy of a statute, or other written law of another state, or of a territory, or of a foreign country, or a printed copy of a proclamation, edict, decree or ordinance by the executive power thereof, contained in a book or publication purporting or proved to have been published by the authority thereof, or proved to be commonly admitted as evidence of the existing law of the judicial tribunals thereof, is presumptive evidence of the statute, law, proclamation, edict, decree or ordinance. The unwritten or common law of another state, or of a territory, or of a foreign country, may be proved as a fact by oral evidence. The books of reports of cases adjudged in the courts thereof must also be admitted as presumptive evidence of the unwritten or common law thereof. The law of such state or territory or foreign country is to be determined by the court or master and included in the findings of the court or master or instructions to the jury, as the case may be. Such finding or instruction is subject to review. In determining such law, neither the trial court nor the Supreme Court shall be limited to the evidence produced on the trial by the parties, but may consult any of the written authorities above named in this subdivision, with the same force and effect as if the same had been admitted in evidence.

 

 

Rule 45. Subpoena.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2021

(a) Form; issuance.

(1) Every subpoena shall:

(A) issue from the court in which the action is pending;

(B) state the title and case number of the action, the name of the court from which it is issued, and the name and address of the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena;

(C) command each person to whom it is directed

(i) to appear and give testimony at a trial, hearing or deposition, or

(ii) to appear and produce for inspection, copying, testing or sampling documents, electronically stored information or tangible things in the possession, custody or control of that person, or

(iii) to copy documents or electronically stored information in the possession, custody or control of that person and mail or deliver the copies to the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena before a date certain, or

(iv) to appear and to permit inspection of premises;

(D) if an appearance is required, give notice of the date, time, and place for the appearance and, if remote transmission is requested, instructions for participation and whom to contact if there are technical difficulties; and

(E) include a notice to persons served with a subpoena in a form substantially similar to the approved subpoena form. A subpoena may specify the form or forms in which electronically stored information is to be produced.

(2) The clerk shall issue a subpoena, signed but otherwise in blank, to a party requesting it, who shall complete it before service. An attorney admitted to practice in Utah may issue and sign a subpoena as an officer of the court.

(b) Service; fees; prior notice.

(1) A subpoena may be served by any person who is at least 18 years of age and not a party to the case. Service of a subpoena upon the person to whom it is directed shall be made as provided in Rule 4(d).

(2) If the subpoena commands a person's appearance, the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena shall tender with the subpoena the fees for one day's attendance and the mileage allowed by law. When the subpoena is issued on behalf of the United States, or this state, or any officer or agency of either, fees and mileage need not be tendered.

(3) If the subpoena commands a person to copy and mail or deliver documents or electronically stored information, to produce documents, electronically stored information or tangible things for inspection, copying, testing or sampling or to permit inspection of premises, the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena shall serve each party with the subpoena by delivery or other method of actual notice before serving the subpoena.

(c) Appearance; resident; non-resident.

(1) A person who resides in this state may be required to appear:

(A) at a trial or hearing in the county in which the case is pending; and

(B) at a deposition, or to produce documents, electronically stored information or tangible things, or to permit inspection of premises only in the county in which the person resides, is employed, or transacts business in person, or at such other place as the court may order.

(2) A person who does not reside in this state but who is served within this state may be required to appear:

(A) at a trial or hearing in the county in which the case is pending; and

(B) at a deposition, or to produce documents, electronically stored information or tangible things, or to permit inspection of premises only in the county in which the person is served or at such other place as the court may order.

(d) Payment of production or copying costs. The party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena shall pay the reasonable cost of producing or copying documents, electronically stored information, or tangible things. Upon the request of any other party and the payment of reasonable costs, the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena shall provide to the requesting party copies of all documents, electronically stored information or tangible things obtained in response to the subpoena or shall make the tangible things available for inspection.

(e) Protection of persons subject to subpoenas; objection.

(1) The party or attorney responsible for issuing a subpoena shall take reasonable steps to avoid imposing an undue burden or expense on the person subject to the subpoena. The court shall enforce this duty and impose upon the party or attorney in breach of this duty an appropriate sanction, which may include, but is not limited to, lost earnings and a reasonable attorney fee.

(2) A subpoena to copy and mail or deliver documents or electronically stored information, to produce documents, electronically stored information or tangible things, or to permit inspection of premises shall comply with Rule 34(a) and (b)(1), except that the person subject to the subpoena must be allowed at least 14 days after service to comply.

(3) The person subject to the subpoena or a non-party affected by the subpoena may object under Rule 37 if the subpoena:

(A) fails to allow reasonable time for compliance;

(B) requires a resident of this state to appear at other than a trial or hearing in a county in which the person does not reside, is not employed, or does not transact business in person;

(C) requires a non-resident of this state to appear at other than a trial or hearing in a county other than the county in which the person was served;

(D) requires the person to disclose privileged or other protected matter and no exception or waiver applies;

(E) requires the person to disclose a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information;

(F) subjects the person to an undue burden or cost;

(G) requires the person to produce electronically stored information in a form or forms to which the person objects;

(H) requires the person to provide electronically stored information from sources that the person identifies as not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost; or

(I) requires the person to disclose an unretained expert's opinion or information not describing specific events or occurrences in dispute and resulting from the expert's study that was not made at the request of a party.

(4) Timing and form of objections.

(A) If the person subject to the subpoena or a non-party affected by the subpoena objects, the objection must be made before the date for compliance.

(B) The objection shall be stated in a concise, non-conclusory manner.

(C) If the objection is that the information commanded by the subpoena is privileged or protected and no exception or waiver applies, or requires the person to disclose a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information, the objection shall sufficiently describe the nature of the documents, communications, or things not produced to enable the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena to contest the objection.

(D) If the objection is that the electronically stored information is from sources that are not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost, the person from whom discovery is sought must show that the information sought is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost.

(E) The objection shall be served on the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena. The party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena shall serve a copy of the objection on the other parties.

(5) If objection is made, or if a party requests a protective order, the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena is not entitled to compliance but may request an order to compel compliance under Rule 37(a). The objection or request shall be served on the other parties and on the person subject to the subpoena. An order compelling compliance shall protect the person subject to or affected by the subpoena from significant expense or harm. The court may quash or modify the subpoena. If the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena shows a substantial need for the information that cannot be met without undue hardship, the court may order compliance upon specified conditions.

(f) Duties in responding to subpoena.

(1) A person commanded to copy and mail or deliver documents or electronically stored information or to produce documents, electronically stored information or tangible things shall serve on the party or attorney responsible for issuing the subpoena a declaration under penalty of law stating in substance:

(A) that the declarant has knowledge of the facts contained in the declaration;

(B) that the documents, electronically stored information or tangible things copied or produced are a full and complete response to the subpoena;

(C) that the documents, electronically stored information or tangible things are the originals or that a copy is a true copy of the original; and

(D) the reasonable cost of copying or producing the documents, electronically stored information or tangible things.

(2) A person commanded to copy and mail or deliver documents or electronically stored information or to produce documents, electronically stored information or tangible things shall copy or produce them as they are kept in the usual course of business or shall organize and label them to correspond with the categories in the subpoena.

(3) If a subpoena does not specify the form or forms for producing electronically stored information, a person responding to a subpoena must produce the information in the form or forms in which the person ordinarily maintains it or in a form or forms that are reasonably usable.

(4) If the information produced in response to a subpoena is subject to a claim of privilege or of protection as trial-preparation material, the person making the claim may notify any party who received the information of the claim and the basis for it. After being notified, the party must promptly return, sequester, or destroy the specified information and any copies of it and may not use or disclose the information until the claim is resolved. A receiving party may promptly present the information to the court under seal for a determination of the claim. If the receiving party disclosed the information before being notified, it must take reasonable steps to retrieve the information. The person who produced the information must preserve the information until the claim is resolved.

(g) Contempt. Failure by any person without adequate excuse to obey a subpoena served upon that person is punishable as contempt of court.

(h) Procedure when witness evades service or fails to attend. If a witness evades service of a subpoena or fails to attend after service of a subpoena, the court may issue a warrant to the sheriff of the county to arrest the witness and bring the witness before the court.

(i) Procedure when witness is an inmate. If the witness is an inmate as defined in Rule 6(e)(1), a party may move for an order to examine the witness in the institution or to produce the witness before the court or officer for the purpose of being orally examined.

(j) Subpoena unnecessary. A person present in court or before a judicial officer may be required to testify in the same manner as if the person were in attendance upon a subpoena.

 

 

Rule 46. Exceptions unnecessary.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

Formal exceptions to rulings or orders of the court are unnecessary. It is sufficient that a party, at the time the ruling or order of the court is made or sought, makes known to the court the action which he desires the court to take or his objection to the action of the court and his grounds therefor; and, if a party has no opportunity to object to a ruling or order at the time it is made, the absence of an objection does not thereafter prejudice him.

 

 

Rule 47. Jurors.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Examination of jurors. The court may permit the parties or their attorneys to conduct the examination of prospective jurors or may itself conduct the examination. In the latter event, the court shall permit the parties or their attorneys to supplement the examination by such further inquiry as is material and proper or shall itself submit to the prospective jurors such additional questions of the parties or their attorneys as is material and proper. Prior to examining the jurors, the court may make a preliminary statement of the case. The court may permit the parties or their attorneys to make a preliminary statement of the case, and notify the parties in advance of trial.

(b) Alternate jurors. The court may direct that alternate jurors be impaneled. Alternate jurors, in the order in which they are called, shall replace jurors who, prior to the time the jury retires to consider its verdict, become unable or disqualified to perform their duties. Alternate jurors shall be selected at the same time and in the same manner, shall have the same qualifications, shall be subject to the same examination and challenges, shall take the same oath, and shall have the same functions, powers, and privileges as principal jurors. An alternate juror who does not replace a principal juror shall be discharged when the jury retires to consider its verdict unless the parties stipulate otherwise and the court approves the stipulation. The court may withhold from the jurors the identity of the alternate jurors until the jurors begin deliberations..

(c) Challenge defined; by whom made. A challenge is an objection made to the trial jurors and may be directed (1) to the panel or (2) to an individual juror.

(d) Challenge to panel; time and manner of taking; proceedings. A challenge to the panel can be founded only on a material departure from the forms prescribed in respect to the drawing and return of the jury, or on the intentional omission of the proper officer to summon one or more of the jurors drawn. It must be taken before a juror is sworn. It must be in writing or be stated on the record, and must specifically set forth the facts constituting the ground of challenge. If the challenge is allowed, the court must discharge the jury so far as the trial in question is concerned.

(e) Challenges to individual jurors; number of peremptory challenges. The challenges to individual jurors are either peremptory or for cause. Each party shall be entitled to three peremptory challenges. Several defendants or several plaintiffs shall be considered as a single party for the purposes of making peremptory challenges unless there is a substantial controversy between them, in which case the court shall allow as many additional peremptory challenges as is just. If one or two alternate jurors are called, each party is entitled to one peremptory challenge in addition to those otherwise allowed.

(f) Challenges for cause. A challenge for cause is an objection to a particular juror and shall be heard and determined by the court. The juror challenged and any other person may be examined as a witness on the hearing of such challenge. A challenge for cause may be taken on one or more of the following grounds. On its own motion the court may remove a juror upon the same grounds.

(f)(1) A want of any of the qualifications prescribed by law to render a person competent as a juror.

(f)(2) Consanguinity or affinity within the fourth degree to either party, or to an officer of a corporation that is a party.

(f)(3) Standing in the relation of debtor and creditor, guardian and ward, master and servant, employer and employee or principal and agent, to either party, or united in business with either party, or being on any bond or obligation for either party; provided, that the relationship of debtor and creditor shall be deemed not to exist between a municipality and a resident thereof indebted to such municipality by reason of a tax, license fee, or service charge for water, power, light or other services rendered to such resident.

(f)(4) Having served as a juror, or having been a witness, on a previous trial between the same parties for the same cause of action, or being then a witness therein.

(f)(5) Pecuniary interest on the part of the juror in the result of the action, or in the main question involved in the action, except interest as a member or citizen of a municipal corporation.

(f)(6) Conduct, responses, state of mind or other circumstances that reasonably lead the court to conclude the juror is not likely to act impartially. No person may serve as a juror, if challenged, unless the judge is convinced the juror can and will act impartially and fairly.

(g) Selection of jury. The judge shall determine the method of selecting the jury and notify the parties at a pretrial conference or otherwise prior to trial. The following methods for selection are not exclusive.

(g)(1) Strike and replace method. The court shall summon the number of jurors that are to try the cause plus such an additional number as will allow for any alternates, for all peremptory challenges permitted, and for all challenges for cause that may be granted. At the direction of the judge, the clerk shall call jurors in random order. The judge may hear and determine challenges for cause during the course of questioning or at the end thereof. The judge may and, at the request of any party, shall hear and determine challenges for cause outside the hearing of the jurors. After each challenge for cause sustained, another juror shall be called to fill the vacancy , and any such new juror may be challenged for cause. When the challenges for cause are completed, the clerk shall provide a list of the jurors remaining, and each side, beginning with the plaintiff, shall indicate thereon its peremptory challenge to one juror at a time in regular turn until all peremptory challenges are exhausted or waived. The clerk shall then call the remaining jurors, or so many of them as shall be necessary to constitute the jury, including any alternate jurors, and the persons whose names are so called shall constitute the jury. If alternate jurors have been selected, the last jurors called shall be the alternates, unless otherwise ordered by the court prior to voir dire.

(g)(2) Struck method. The court shall summon the number of jurors that are to try the cause plus such an additional number as will allow for any alternates, for all peremptory challenges permitted and for all challenges for cause that may be granted. At the direction of the judge, the clerk shall call jurors in random order. The judge may hear and determine challenges for cause during the course of questioning or at the end thereof. The judge may and, at the request of any party, shall hear and determine challenges for cause outside the hearing of the jurors. When the challenges for cause are completed, the clerk shall provide a list of the jurors remaining, and each side, beginning with the plaintiff, shall indicate thereon its peremptory challenge to one juror at a time in regular turn until all peremptory challenges are exhausted or waived. The clerk shall then call the remaining jurors, or so many of them as shall be necessary to constitute the jury, including any alternate jurors, and the persons whose names are so called shall constitute the jury. If alternate jurors have been selected, the last jurors called shall be the alternates, unless otherwise ordered by the court prior to voir dire.

(g)(3) In courts using lists of prospective jurors generated in random order by computer, the clerk may call the jurors in that random order.

(h) Oath of jury. As soon as the jury is selected an oath must be administered to the jurors, in substance, that they and each of them will well and truly try the matter in issue between the parties, and render a true verdict according to the evidence and the instructions of the court.

(i) Proceedings when juror discharged. If, after impaneling the jury and before verdict, a juror becomes unable or disqualified to perform the duties of a juror and there is no alternate juror, the parties may agree to proceed with the other jurors, or to swear a new juror and commence the trial anew. If the parties do not so agree the court shall discharge the jury and the case shall be tried with a new jury.

(j) Questions by jurors. A judge may invite jurors to submit written questions to a witness as provided in this section.

(j)(1) If the judge permits jurors to submit questions, the judge shall control the process to ensure the jury maintains its role as the impartial finder of fact and does not become an investigative body. The judge may disallow any question from a juror and may discontinue questions from jurors at any time.

(j)(2) If the judge permits jurors to submit questions, the judge should advise the jurors that they may write the question as it occurs to them and submit the question to the bailiff for transmittal to the judge. The judge should advise the jurors that some questions might not be allowed.

(j)(3) The judge shall review the question with counsel and unrepresented parties and rule upon any objection to the question. The judge may disallow a question even though no objection is made. The judge shall preserve the written question in the court file. If the question is allowed, the judge shall ask the question or permit counsel or an unrepresented party to ask it. The question may be rephrased into proper form. The judge shall allow counsel and unrepresented parties to examine the witness after the juror's question.

(k) View by jury. When in the opinion of the court it is proper for the jury to have a view of the property which is the subject of litigation, or of the place in which any material fact occurred, it may order them to be conducted in a body under the charge of an officer to the place, which shall be shown to them by some person appointed by the court for that purpose. While the jury are thus absent no person other than the person so appointed shall speak to them on any subject connected with the trial.

(l) Communication with jurors. There shall be no off-the-record communication between jurors and lawyers, parties, witnesses or persons acting on their behalf. Jurors shall not communicate with any person regarding a subject of the trial. Jurors may communicate with court personnel and among themselves about topics other than a subject of the trial. It is the duty of jurors not to form or express an opinion regarding a subject of the trial except during deliberation. The judge shall so admonish the jury at the beginning of trial and remind them as appropriate.

(m) Deliberation of jury. When the case is finally submitted to the jury they may decide in court or retire for deliberation. If they retire they must be kept together in some convenient place under charge of an officer until they agree upon a verdict or are discharged, unless otherwise ordered by the court. Unless by order of the court, the officer having charge of them must not make or allow to be made any communication to them with respect to the action, except to ask them if they have agreed upon their verdict, and the officer must not, before the verdict is rendered, communicate to any person the state of deliberations or the verdict agreed upon.

(n) Exhibits taken by jury; notes. Upon retiring for deliberation the jury may take with them the instructions of the court and all exhibits which have been received as evidence in the cause, except exhibits that should not, in the opinion of the court, be in the possession of the jury, such as exhibits of unusual size, weapons or contraband. The court shall permit the jury to view exhibits upon request. Jurors are entitled to take notes during the trial and to have those notes with them during deliberations. As necessary, the court shall provide jurors with writing materials and instruct the jury on taking and using notes.

(o) Additional instructions of jury. After the jury have retired for deliberation, if there is a disagreement among them as to any part of the testimony, or if they desire to be informed on any point of law arising in the cause, they may require the officer to conduct them into court. Upon their being brought into court the information required must be given in the presence of, or after notice to, the parties or counsel. Such information must be given in writing or stated on the record.

(p) New trial when no verdict given. If a jury is discharged or prevented from giving a verdict for any reason, the action shall be tried anew.

(q) Court deemed in session pending verdict; verdict may be sealed. While the jury is absent the court may be adjourned from time to time in respect to other business, but it shall be open for every purpose connected with the cause submitted to the jury, until a verdict is rendered or the jury discharged. The court may direct the jury to bring in a sealed verdict at the opening of the court, in case of an agreement during a recess or adjournment for the day.

(r) Declaration of verdict. When the jury or three-fourths of them, or such other number as may have been agreed upon by the parties pursuant to Rule 48, have agreed upon a verdict they must be conducted into court, their names called by the clerk, and the verdict rendered by their foreperson; the verdict must be in writing, signed by the foreperson, and must be read by the clerk to the jury, and the inquiry made whether it is their verdict. Either party may require the jury to be polled, which shall be done by the court or clerk asking each juror if it is the juror's verdict. If, upon such inquiry or polling there is an insufficient number of jurors agreeing therewith, the jury must be sent out again; otherwise the verdict is complete and the jury shall be discharged from the cause.

(s) Correction of verdict. If the verdict rendered is informal or insufficient, it may be corrected by the jury under the advice of the court, or the jury may be sent out again.


Advisory Committee Notes

Paragraph (a) The preliminary statement of the case does not serve the same purpose as the opening statement presented after the jury is selected. The preliminary statement of the case serves only to provide a brief context in which the jurors might more knowledgeably answer questions during voir dire. A preliminary opening statement is not required and may serve no useful purpose in short trials or trials with relatively simple issues. The judge should be particularly attuned to prevent argument or posturing at this early stage of the trial.

Paragraph (f)(6). The Utah Supreme Court has noted a tendency of trial court judges to rule against a challenge for cause in the face of legitimate questions about a juror's biases. The Supreme Court limited the following admonition to capital cases, but it is a sound philosophy even in trials of lesser consequence.

[W]e take this opportunity to address an issue of growing concern to this court. We are perplexed by the trial courts' frequent insistence on passing jurors for cause in death penalty cases when legitimate concerns about their suitability have been raised during voir dire. While the abuse-of-discretion standard of review affords trial courts wide latitude in making their for-cause determinations, we are troubled by their tendency to "push the edge of the envelope," especially when capital voir dire panels are so large and the death penalty is at issue. Moreover, capital cases are extremely costly, in terms of both time and money. Passing questionable jurors increases the drain on the state's resources and jeopardizes an otherwise valid conviction and/or sentence. ... If a party raises legitimate questions as to a potential juror's beliefs, biases, or physical ability to serve, the potential juror should be struck for cause, even where it would not be legally erroneous to refuse. State v. Carter, 888 P.2d 629 (Utah 1995).

In determining challenges for cause, the task of the judge is to find the proper balance. It is not the judge's duty to seat a jury from a too-small venire panel or to seat a jury as quickly as possible. Although thorough questioning of a juror to determine the existence, nature and extent of a bias is appropriate, it is not the judge's duty to extract the "right" answer from or to "rehabilitate" a juror. The judge should accept honest answers to understood questions and, based on that evidence, make the sometimes difficult decision to seat only those jurors the judge is convinced will act fairly and impartially. This higher duty demands a sufficient venire panel and sufficient voir dire. The trial court judge enjoys considerable discretion in limiting voir dire when there is no apparent link between a question and potential bias, but "when proposed voir dire questions go directly to the existence of an actual bias, that discretion disappears. The trial court must allow such inquiries." The court should ensure the parties have a meaningful opportunity to explore grounds for challenges for cause and to ask follow-up questions, either through direct questioning or questioning by the court.

The objective of a challenge for cause is to remove from the venire panel persons who cannot act impartially in deliberating upon a verdict. The lack of impartiality may be due to some bias for or against one of the parties; it may be due to an opinion about the subject matter of the action or about the action itself. The civil rules of procedure have a few - and the criminal rules many more - specific circumstances, usually a relationship with a party or a circumstance of the juror, from which the bias of the juror is inferred. In addition to these enumerated grounds for a challenge for cause, both the civil rules and the criminal rules close with the following grounds: formulation by the juror of a state of mind that will prevent the juror from acting impartially. However, the rules go on to provide that no person shall be disqualified as a juror by reason of having formed an opinion upon the matter if it satisfactorily appears to the court that the person will, notwithstanding that opinion, act impartially.

The amendments focus on the "state of mind" clause. In determining whether a person can act impartially, the court should focus not only on that person's state of mind but should consider the totality of the circumstances. These circumstances might include the experiences, conduct, statements, opinions, or associations of the juror. Rather than determining that the juror is "prevented" from acting impartially, the court should determine whether the juror "is not likely to act impartially." These amendments conform to the directive of the Supreme Court: If there is a legitimate question about the ability of a person to act impartially, the court should remove that person from the panel.

There is no need to modify this determination with the statement that a juror who can set aside an opinion based on public journals, rumors or common notoriety and act impartially should not be struck. Having read or heard of the matter and even having an opinion about the matter do not meet the standard of the rule. Well-informed and involved citizens are not automatically to be disqualified from jury service. Sound public policy supports knowledgeable, involved citizens as jurors. The challenge for the court is to evaluate the impact of this extra-judicial information on the ability of the person to act impartially. Information and opinions about the case remain relevant to but not determinative of the question: "Will the person be a fair and impartial juror?"

In stating that no person may serve as a juror unless the judge is "convinced" the juror will act impartially, the Committee uses the term "convinced" advisedly. The term is not intended to suggest the application of a clear and convincing standard of proof in determining juror impartiality, such a high standard being contrary to the Committee's objectives. Nor is the term intended to undermine the long-held presumption that potential jurors who satisfy the basic requirements imposed by statutes and rules are qualified to serve. Rather, the term is intended to encourage the trial judge to be thorough and deliberative in evaluating challenges for cause. Although not an evidentiary standard at all, the term "convinced" implies a high standard for judicial decision-making. Review of the decision should remain limited to an abuse of discretion.

This new standard for challenges for cause represents a balance more easily stated than achieved. These amendments encourage judges to exercise greater care in evaluating challenges for cause and to resolve legitimate doubts in favor of removal. This may mean some jurors now removed by peremptory challenge will be removed instead for cause. It may also mean the court will have to summon more prospective jurors for voir dire. Whether lawyers will use fewer peremptory challenges will have to await the judgment of experience.

Paragraph (m). The committee recommends amending paragraph (m) to establish the right of jurors to take notes and to have those notes with them during deliberations. The committee recommends removing depositions from the paragraph not in order to permit the jurors to have depositions but to recognize that depositions are not evidence. Depositions read into evidence will be treated as any other oral testimony. These amendments and similar amendments to the Rules of Criminal Procedure will make the two provisions identical.

Advisory Committee Note. Paragraph (j) The committee intends neither to encourage nor to discourage the practice of inviting jurors to submit written questions of witnesses, but only to regulate and make uniform the procedure by which it occurs should the judge exercise discretion in favor of the practice. In exercising that discretion, the committee encourages the judge to discuss the matter beforehand, at the pretrial conference if possible, and consider points in favor of or opposed to the practice. In instructing the jurors and to promote restraint among them, the committee encourages the judge to remind jurors that lawyers are trained to elicit the evidence necessary to decide the case.

 

 

Rule 48. Juries of less than eight - Majority verdict.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

The parties may stipulate that the jury shall consist of any number less than eight or that a verdict or a finding of a stated majority of the jurors shall be taken as the verdict or finding of the jury.

 

 

Rule 49. Special verdicts and interrogatories.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Special verdicts. The court may require a jury to return only a special verdict in the form of a special written finding upon each issue of fact. In that event the court may submit to the jury written interrogatories susceptible of categorical or other brief answer or may submit written forms of the several special findings which might properly be made under the pleadings and evidence; or it may use such other method of submitting the issues and requiring the written findings thereon as it deems most appropriate. The court shall give to the jury such explanation and instruction concerning the matter thus submitted as may be necessary to enable the jury to make its findings upon each issue. If in so doing the court omits any issue of fact raised by the pleadings or by the evidence, each party waives his right to a trial by jury of the issue so omitted unless before the jury retires he demands its submission to the jury. As to an issue omitted without such demand the court may make a finding; or, if it fails to do so, it shall be deemed to have made a finding in accord with the judgment on the special verdict.

(b) General verdict accompanied by answer to interrogatories. The court may submit to the jury, together with appropriate forms for a general verdict, written interrogatories upon one or more issues of fact the decision of which is necessary to a verdict. The court shall give such explanation or instruction as may be necessary to enable the jury both to make answers to the interrogatories and to render a general verdict, and the court shall direct the jury both to make written answers and to render a general verdict. When the general verdict and the answers are harmonious, the appropriate judgment upon the verdict and answers shall be entered pursuant to Rule 58A. When the answers are consistent with each other but one or more is inconsistent with the general verdict, judgment may be entered pursuant to Rule 58A in accordance with the answers, notwithstanding the general verdict, or the court may return the jury for further consideration of its answers and verdict or may order a new trial. When the answers are inconsistent with each other and one or more is likewise inconsistent with the general verdict, judgment shall not be entered, but the court shall return the jury for further consideration of its answers and verdict or shall order a new trial.

 

 

Rule 50. Judgment as a matter of law in a jury trial; related motion for a new trial; conditional ruling.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2016

(a) Judgment as a matter of law.

(a)(1) If a party has been fully heard on an issue during a jury trial and the court finds that a reasonable jury would not have a legally sufficient evidentiary basis to find for the party on that issue, the court may:

(a)(1)(A) resolve the issue against the party; and

(a)(1)(B) grant a motion for judgment as a matter of law against the party on a claim or defense that, under the controlling law, can be maintained or defeated only with a favorable finding on that issue.

(a)(2) A motion for judgment as a matter of law may be made at any time before the case is submitted to the jury. The motion must specify the judgment sought and the law and facts that entitle the moving party to the judgment.

(b) Renewed motion for judgment as a matter of law. If the court does not grant a motion for judgment as a matter of law made under paragraph (a), the court is considered to have submitted the action to the jury subject to the court later deciding the legal questions raised by the motion. No later than 28 days after entry of judgment— or if the motion addresses a jury issue not decided by a verdict, no later than 28 days after the jury was discharged, the moving party may file a renewed motion for judgment as a matter of law and may include an alternative or joint request for a new trial under Rule59. In ruling on the renewed motion the court may:

(b)(1) allow judgment on the verdict if the jury returned a verdict;

(b)(2) order a new trial or

(b)(3) direct the entry of judgment as a matter of law.

(c) Granting the renewed motion; conditional ruling on a motion for new trial.

(c)(1) If the court grants a renewed motion for judgment as a matter of law, it must also conditionally rule on any motion for a new trial by determining whether a new trial should be granted if the judgment is later vacated or reversed. The court must state the grounds for conditionally granting or denying the motion for a new trial.

(c)(2) Conditionally granting the motion for a new trial does not affect the judgment’s finality; if the judgment is reversed, the new trial must proceed unless the appellate court orders otherwise. If the motion for a new trial is conditionally denied, the appellee may assert error in that denial; if the judgment is reversed, the case must proceed as the appellate court orders.

(d) Time for losing party’s new‑trial motion. Any motion for a new trial under Rule 59 by a party against whom judgment as a matter of law is rendered must be filed no later than 28 days after entry of the judgment as a matter of law.

(e) Denying the motion for judgment as a matter of law; reversal on appeal. If the court denies the motion for judgment as a matter of law, the prevailing party may, as appellee, assert grounds entitling it to a new trial if the appellate court concludes that the trial court erred in denying the motion. If the appellate court reverses the judgment, it may order a new trial, direct the trial court to determine whether a new trial should be granted, or direct the entry of judgment.


Advisory Committee Notes

The 2016 amendments adopt the plain-language class of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 50. We also borrow heavily from the 1991 federal Advisory Committee Note, which explains the changes and the reasoning behind them:

The revision abandons the familiar terminology of “direction of verdict” for several reasons. The term is misleading as a description of the relationship between judge and jury. It is also freighted with anachronisms some of which are the subject of the text of former subdivision (a) of this rule that is deleted in this revision. Thus, it should not be necessary to state in the text of this rule that a motion made pursuant to it is not a waiver of the right to jury trial, and only the antiquities of directed verdict practice suggest that it might have been. The term “judgment as a matter of law” is an almost equally familiar term and appears in the text of Rule 56; its use in Rule 50 calls attention to the relationship between the two rules. Finally, the change enables the rule to refer to preverdict and post-trial motions with a terminology that does not conceal the common identity of two motions made at different times in the proceeding.

….

Paragraph (a)(1) articulates the standard for the granting of a motion for judgment as a matter of law. It effects no change in the existing standard. …. The expressed standard makes clear that action taken under the rule is a performance of the court’s duty to assure enforcement of the controlling law and is not an intrusion on any responsibility for factual determinations conferred on the jury …. Because this standard is also used as a reference point for entry of summary judgment under 56(a), it serves to link the two related provisions.

The revision authorizes the court to perform its duty to enter judgment as a matter of law at any time during the trial, as soon as it is apparent that either party is unable to carry a burden of proof that is essential to that party's case. Thus, the second sentence of paragraph (a)(1) authorizes the court to consider a motion for judgment as a matter of law as soon as a party has completed a presentation on a fact essential to that party's case. Such early action is appropriate when economy and expedition will be served. In no event, however, should the court enter judgment against a party who has not been apprised of the materiality of the dispositive fact and been afforded an opportunity to present any available evidence bearing on that fact. . . .

As in the federal rule, the time for filing the motion has been extended to 28 days after entry of judgment. Finally, in accordance with the 2006 federal amendment, the amended rule removes the technical requirement that the motion be renewed at the close of all the evidence, a requirement that the committee determined was an unnecessary trap for the unwary.


 

 

Rule 51. Instructions to jury; objections.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Preliminary instructions. After the jury is sworn and before opening statements, the court may instruct the jury concerning the jurors' duties and conduct, the order of proceedings, the elements and burden of proof for the cause of action, and the definition of terms. The court may instruct the jury concerning any matter stipulated to by the parties and agreed to by the court and any matter the court in its discretion believes will assist the jurors in comprehending the case.

(b) Interim instructions. During the course of the trial, the court may instruct the jury on the law if the instruction will assist the jurors in comprehending the case. A party may request an interim instruction.

(c) Final instructions. The court shall instruct the jury at the conclusion of the evidence as may be needed.

(d) Request for instructions. Parties shall file requested jury instructions at the final pretrial conference or at any other time directed by the court. If a party relies on a statute, rule or case to support or object to a requested instruction, the party shall provide a citation to or a copy of the statute, rule or case. The court shall provide the parties with a copy of the approved instructions, unless the parties waive this requirement.

(e) Written instructions. Whenever practical, jury instructions should be in writing. At least one written copy shall be provided to the jury. The court shall provide a written copy to any juror who requests one.

(f) Objections to instructions. Objections to written instructions shall be made before the instructions are given to the jury. Objections to oral instructions may be made after they are given to the jury, but before the jury retires to consider its verdict. The court shall provide an opportunity to make objections outside the hearing of the jury. Unless a party objects to an instruction or the failure to give an instruction, the instruction may not be assigned as error except to avoid a manifest injustice. In objecting to the giving of an instruction, a party shall identify the matter to which the objection is made and the grounds for the objection.

(g) Arguments. Arguments for the respective parties shall be made after the court has given the jury its final instructions. The court shall not comment on the evidence in the case, and if the court states any of the evidence, it must instruct the jurors that they are the exclusive judges of all questions of fact.

 

 

Rule 52. Findings and conclusions by the court; amended findings; waiver of findings and conclusions; correction of the record; judgment on partial findings.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2016

(a) Findings and conclusions.

(a)(1) In all actions tried upon the facts without a jury or with an advisory jury, the court must find the facts specially and state separately its conclusions of law. The findings and conclusions must be made part of the record and may be stated in writing or orally following the close of the evidence. Judgment must be entered separately under Rule 58A.

(a)(2) In granting or refusing interlocutory injunctions the court must similarly set forth the findings of fact and conclusions of law that support its action.

(a)(3)A party may later question the sufficiency of the evidence supporting the findings, whether or not the party requested findings, objected to them, moved to amend them, or moved for partial findings.

(a)(4) Findings of fact, whether based on oral or other evidence, must not be set aside unless clearly erroneous, and the reviewing court must give due regard to the trial court’s opportunity to judge the credibility of the witnesses.

(a)(5) The findings of a master, to the extent that the court adopts them, must be considered as the findings of the court.

(a)(6) The trial court need not enter findings of fact and conclusions of law in rulings on motions granted under Rules 12(b)5056, and 59, but, when the motion is based on more than one ground, the court must issue a brief written statement of the ground for its decision

(b) Amended or additional findings. Upon motion of a party filed no later than 28 days after entry of judgment the court may amend its findings or make additional findings and may amend the judgment accordingly. The motion may accompany a motion for a new trial under Rule 59.

(c) Waiver of findings of fact and conclusions of law. Except in actions for divorce, the parties may waive findings of fact and conclusions of law:

(c)(1) by default or by failing to appear at the trial;

(c)(2) by consent in writing, filed in the action;

(c)(3) by oral consent in open court, entered in the minutes.

(d) Correction of the record. If anything material is omitted from or misstated in the transcript of an audio or video record of a hearing or trial, or if a disagreement arises as to whether the record accurately discloses what occurred in the proceeding, a party may move to correct the record. The motion must be filed within 14 days after the transcript of the hearing is filed, unless good cause is shown. The omission, misstatement or disagreement will be resolved by the court and the record made to accurately reflect the proceeding.

(e) Judgment on partial findings.If a party has been fully heard on an issue during a nonjury trial and the court finds against the party on that issue, the court may enter non-final judgment against the party on a claim or defense that, under the controlling law, can be maintained or defeated only with a favorable finding on that issue. The court may, however, decline to render any judgment until the close of the evidence. A non-final judgment on partial findings must be supported by findings of fact and conclusions of law as required by paragraph (a).


Advisory Committee Notes

The 2016 amendments adopt the plain‑language class of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 52. And, like the federal rule, the 2016 amendments move a provision found in Rule 41(b) to this rule. Formerly, if a plaintiff had presented its case and the evidence did not support the claim, the court—in a trial by the court—could find for the defendant without having to hear the defendant’s evidence. The equivalent provision now found in paragraph (e) extends that principle to claims other than the plaintiff’s and, if a party’s evidence on any particular element of the cause of action is complete but insufficient, allows the court to make findings and conclusions and enter judgment accordingly.

 

 

Rule 53. Masters.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Appointment and compensation. Any or all of the issues in an action may be referred by the court to a master upon the written consent of the parties, or the court may appoint a master in an action, in accordance with the provisions of Subdivision (b) of this rule. As used in these rules the word "master" includes a referee, an auditor, and an examiner. The compensation to be allowed to a master shall be fixed by the court, and shall be charged upon such of the parties or paid out of any fund or subject matter of the action, which is in the custody and control of the court as the court may direct. The master shall not retain his report as security for his compensation; but when the party ordered to pay the compensation allowed by the court does not pay it after notice and within the time prescribed by the court, the master is entitled to a writ of execution against the delinquent party.

(b) Reference. A reference to a master shall be the exception and not the rule. In actions to be tried by a jury, a reference shall be made only when the issues are complicated; in actions to be tried without a jury, save in matters of account, a reference shall, in the absence of the written consent of the parties, be made only upon a showing that some exceptional condition requires it.

(c) Powers. The order of reference to the master may specify or limit his powers and may direct him to report only upon particular issues or to do or perform particular acts or to receive and report evidence only and may fix the time and place for beginning and closing the hearings and for the filing of the master's report. Subject to the specifications and limitations stated in the order, the master has and shall exercise the power to regulate all proceedings in every hearing before him and to do all acts and take all measures necessary or proper for the efficient performance of his duties under the order. He may require the production before him of evidence upon all matters embraced in the reference, including the production of all books, papers, vouchers, documents, and writings applicable thereto. He may rule upon the admissibility of evidence unless otherwise directed by the order of reference and has the authority to put witnesses on oath and may himself examine them and may call the parties to the action and examine them upon oath. When a party so requests, the master shall make a record of the evidence offered and excluded in the same manner and subject to the same limitations as provided in the Utah Rules of Evidence for a court sitting without a jury.

(d) Proceedings.

(d)(1) Meetings. When a reference is made, the clerk shall forthwith furnish the master with a copy of the order of reference. Upon receipt thereof unless the order of reference otherwise provides, the master shall forthwith set a time and place for the first meeting of the parties or their attorneys to be held within 21 days after the date of the order of reference and shall notify the parties or their attorneys. It is the duty of the master to proceed with all reasonable diligence. Either party, on notice to the parties and master, may apply to the court for an order requiring the master to speed the proceedings and to make his report. If a party fails to appear at the time and place appointed, the master may proceed ex parte or, in his discretion, adjourn the proceedings to a future day, giving notice to the absent party of the adjournment.

(d)(2) Witnesses. The parties may procure the attendance of witnesses before the master by the issuance and service of subpoenas as provided in Rule 45. If without adequate excuse a witness fails to appear or give evidence, he may be punished as for a contempt and be subjected to the consequences, penalties, and remedies provided in Rules 37 and 45.

(d)(3) Statement of accounts. When matters of accounting are in issue before the master, he may prescribe the form in which the accounts shall be submitted and in any proper case may require or receive in evidence a statement by a certified public accountant who is called as a witness. Upon objection of a party to any of the items thus submitted or upon a showing that the form of statement is insufficient, the master may require a different form of statement to be furnished, or the accounts or specific items thereof to be proved by oral examination of the accounting parties or upon written interrogatories or in such other manner as he directs.

(e) Report.

(e)(1) Contents and filing. The master shall prepare a report upon the matters submitted to him by the order of reference and, if required to make findings of fact and conclusions of law, he shall set them forth in the report. He shall file the report with the clerk of the court and in an action to be tried without a jury, unless otherwise directed by the order of reference, shall file with it a transcript of the proceedings and of the evidence and the original exhibits. The clerk shall forthwith mail to all parties notice of the filing.

(e)(2) In non-jury actions. In an action to be tried without a jury the court shall accept the master's findings of fact unless clearly erroneous. Within 14 days after being served with notice of the filing of the report any party may serve written objections thereto upon the other parties. Application to the court for action upon the report and upon objections thereto shall be by motion and upon notice as prescribed in Rule 6(d). The court after hearing may adopt the report or may modify it or may reject it in whole or in part or may receive further evidence or may recommit it with instructions.

(e)(3) In jury actions. In an action to be tried by a jury the master shall not be directed to report the evidence. His findings upon the issues submitted to him are admissible as evidence of the matters found and may be read to the jury, subject to the ruling of the court upon any objections in point of law which may be made to the report.

(e)(4) Stipulation as to findings. The effect of a master's report is the same whether or not the parties have consented to the reference; but, when the parties stipulate that a master's findings of fact shall be final, only questions of law arising upon the report shall thereafter be considered.

(e)(5) Draft report. Before filing his report a master may submit a draft thereof to counsel for all parties for the purpose of receiving their suggestions.

(f) Objections to appointment of master. A party may object to the appointment of any person as a master on the same grounds as a party may challenge for cause any prospective trial juror in the trial of a civil action. Such objections must be heard and disposed of by the court in the same manner as a motion.

 

 

Rule 54. Judgments; costs.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2016

(a) Definition; form. "Judgment" as used in these rules includes a decree or order that adjudicates all claims and the rights and liabilities of all parties or any other order from which an appeal of right lies. A judgment should not contain a recital of pleadings, the report of a master, or the record of prior proceedings.

(b) Judgment upon multiple claims and/or involving multiple parties. When an action presents more than one claim for relief—whether as a claim, counterclaim, cross claim, or third party claim—and/or when multiple parties are involved, the court may enter judgment as to one or more but fewer than all of the claims or parties only if the court expressly determines that there is no just reason for delay. Otherwise, any order or other decision, however designated, that adjudicates fewer than all the claims or the rights and liabilities of fewer than all the parties does not end the action as to any of the claims or parties, and may be changed at any time before the entry of judgment adjudicating all the claims and the rights and liabilities of all the parties.

(c) Demand for judgment.A default judgment must not differ in kind from, or exceed in amount, what is demanded in the pleadings. Every other judgment should grant the relief to which each party is entitled, even if the party has not demanded that relief in its pleadings.

(d) Costs.

(d)(1) To whom awarded. Unless a statute, these rules, or a court order provides otherwise, costs should be allowed to the prevailing party. Costs against the state of Utah, its officers and agencies may be imposed only to the extent permitted by law.

(d)(2) How assessed. The party who claims costs must not later than 14 days after the entry of judgment file and serve a verified memorandum of costs. A party dissatisfied with the costs claimed may, within 7 days after service of the memorandum of costs, object to the claimed costs.

(d)(3) Memorandum filed before judgment. A memorandum of costs served and filed after the verdict, or at the time of or subsequent to the service and filing of the findings of fact and conclusions of law, but before the entry of judgment, is deemed served and filed on the date judgment is entered.

(e) Amending the judgment to add costs or attorney fees. If the court awards costs under paragraph (d) or attorney fees under Rule 73 after the judgment is entered, the prevailing party must file and serve an amended judgment including the costs or attorney fees. The court will enter the amended judgment unless another party objects within 7 days after the amended judgment is filed.


Advisory Committee Notes

In Butler v. Corporation of The President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 2014 UT 41, the Supreme Court established the requirements of a judgment entered by means of a Rule 54(b) certification:

First, it must be entered in an action involving multiple claims or multiple parties. Second, it must have been entered on an order that would otherwise be appealable but for the fact that other claims or parties remain in the action. …. Third, the trial court, in its discretion, must make a determination that there is no just reason for delay of the appeal. Id. ¶28

To satisfy the second requirement, the Supreme Court in Butlerincluded, in addition to the other requirements of appealability, the principle that the order must include one of the three indicia of finality imposed by former Rule 7(f)(2): a proposed order submitted with the supporting or opposing memorandum; an order prepared at the direction of the judge; an express indication that a further order was not required. The 2015 amendments to Rule 7 replace these indicia with the judge’s signature. The 2015 amendments of Rule 7, Rule 54 and Rule 58A do not disturb the principles established in Butler; they do make simpler the task of satisfying the requirement that the interlocutory order be complete under Rule 7 before it can be certified under Rule 54.

2016 amendments

Paragraph (e) describes the process by which the determination of costs or fees becomes part of the judgment. If there is legal error in entering judgment for costs or attorney fees, that error is reviewable on appeal just like any other.

 

 

Rule 55. Default.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/8/2018

(a) Entry.When a party against whom a judgment for affirmative relief is sought has failed to plead or otherwise defend as provided by these rules and that fact is made to appear the clerk shall enter the default of that party.

(b) Judgment. Judgment by default may be entered as follows:

(b)(1) By the clerk. When the plaintiff’s claim against a defendant is for a sum certain, upon request of the plaintiff the clerk shall enter judgment for the amount claimed and costs against the defendant if:

(b)(1)(A) the default of the defendant is for failure to appear;

(b)(1)(B) the defendant is not an infant or incompetent person;

(b)(1)(C) the defendant has been personally served pursuant to Rule 4(d)(1); and

(b)(1)(D) the plaintiff, through a verified complaint, an affidavit, or an unsworn declaration as described in Title 78B, Chapter 18a, Uniform Unsworn Declarations Act, submitted in support of the default judgment, sets forth facts necessary to establish the amount of the claim, after deducting all credits to which the defendant is entitled, and verifies the amount is warranted by information in the plaintiff’s possession.

(b)(2) By the court. In all other cases the party entitled to a judgment by default shall apply to the court therefor. If, in order to enable the court to enter judgment or to carry it into effect, it is necessary to take an account or to determine the amount of damages or to establish the truth of any averment by evidence or to make an investigation of any other matter, the court may conduct such hearings or order such references as it deems necessary and proper.

(c) Setting aside default. For good cause shown the court may set aside an entry of default and, if a judgment by default has been entered, may likewise set it aside in accordance with Rule 60(b).

(d) Plaintiffs, counterclaimants, cross-claimants. The provisions of this rule apply whether the party entitled to the judgment by default is a plaintiff, a third-party plaintiff, or a party who has pleaded a cross-claim or counterclaim. In all cases a judgment by default is subject to the limitations of Rule 54(c).

(e) Judgment against the state or officer or agency thereof. No judgment by default shall be entered against the state of Utah or against an officer or agency thereof unless the claimant establishes his claim or right to relief by evidence satisfactory to the court.

Effective May 8, 2018 pursuant to CJA Rule 11-105(5)

 

 

Rule 56. Summary judgment.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Motion for summary judgment or partial summary judgment. A party may move for summary judgment, identifying each claim or defense—or the part of each claim or defense—on which summary judgment is sought. The court shall grant summary judgment if the moving party shows that there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. The court should state on the record the reasons for granting or denying the motion. The motion and memoranda must follow Rule 7 as supplemented below.

(a)(1) Instead of a statement of the facts under Rule 7, a motion for summary judgment must contain a statement of material facts claimed not to be genuinely disputed. Each fact must be separately stated in numbered paragraphs and supported by citing to materials in the record under paragraph (c)(1) of this rule.

(a)(2) Instead of a statement of the facts under Rule 7, a memorandum opposing the motion must include a verbatim restatement of each of the moving party’s facts that is disputed with an explanation of the grounds for the dispute supported by citing to materials in the record under paragraph (c)(1) of this rule. The memorandum may contain a separate statement of additional materials facts in dispute, which must be separately stated in numbered paragraphs and similarly supported.

(a)(3) The motion and the memorandum opposing the motion may contain a concise statement of facts, whether disputed or undisputed, for the limited purpose of providing background and context for the case, dispute and motion.

(a)(4) Each material fact set forth in the motion or in the memorandum opposing the motion under paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) that is not disputed is deemed admitted for the purposes of the motion.

(b) Time to file a motion. A party seeking to recover upon a claim, counterclaim or cross-claim or to obtain a declaratory judgment may move for summary judgment at any time after service of a motion for summary judgment by the adverse party or after 21 days from the commencement of the action. A party against whom a claim, counterclaim, or cross-claim is asserted or a declaratory judgment is sought may move for summary judgment at any time. Unless the court orders otherwise, a party may file a motion for summary judgment at any time no later than 28 days after the close of all discovery.

(c) Procedures.

(c)(1) Supporting factual positions. A party asserting that a fact cannot be genuinely disputed or is genuinely disputed must support the assertion by:

(c)(1)(A) citing to particular parts of materials in the record, including depositions, documents, electronically stored information, affidavits or declarations, stipulations (including those made for purposes of the motion only), admissions, interrogatory answers, or other materials; or

(c)(1)(B) showing that the materials cited do not establish the absence or presence of a genuine dispute.

(c)(2) Objection that a fact is not supported by admissible evidence. A party may object that the material cited to support or dispute a fact cannot be presented in a form that would be admissible in evidence.

(c)(3) Materials not cited. The court need consider only the cited materials, but it may consider other materials in the record.

(c)(4) Affidavits or declarations. An affidavit or declaration used to support or oppose a motion must be made on personal knowledge, must set out facts that would be admissible in evidence, and must show that the affiant or declarant is competent to testify on the matters stated.

(d) When facts are unavailable to the nonmoving party. If a nonmoving party shows by affidavit or declaration that, for specified reasons, it cannot present facts essential to justify its opposition, the court may:

(d)(1) defer considering the motion or deny it without prejudice;

(d)(2) allow time to obtain affidavits or declarations or to take discovery; or

(d)(3) issue any other appropriate order.

(e) Failing to properly support or address a fact. If a party fails to properly support an assertion of fact or fails to properly address another party's assertion of fact as required by paragraph (c), the court may:

(e)(1) give an opportunity to properly support or address the fact;

(e)(2) consider the fact undisputed for purposes of the motion;

(e)(3) grant summary judgment if the motion and supporting materials—including the facts considered undisputed—show that the moving party is entitled to it; or

(e)(4) issue any other appropriate order.

(f) Judgment independent of the motion. After giving notice and a reasonable time to respond, the court may:

(f)(1) grant summary judgment for a nonmoving party;

(f)(2) grant the motion on grounds not raised by a party; or

(f)(3) consider summary judgment on its own after identifying for the parties material facts that may not be genuinely in dispute.

(g) Failing to grant all the requested relief. If the court does not grant all the relief requested by the motion, it may enter an order stating any material fact—including an item of damages or other relief—that is not genuinely in dispute and treating the fact as established in the case.

(h) Affidavit or declaration submitted in bad faith. If satisfied that an affidavit or declaration under this rule is submitted in bad faith or solely for delay, the court—after notice and a reasonable time to respond—may order the submitting party to pay the other party the reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees, it incurred as a result. The court may also hold an offending party or attorney in contempt or order other appropriate sanctions.


Advisory Committee Notes

The objective of the 2015 amendments is to adopt the class of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 56 without changing the substantive Utah law. The 2015 amendments also move to this rule the special briefing requirements of motions for summary judgment formerly found in Rule 7. Nothing in these changes should be interpreted as changing the line of Utah cases regarding the burden of proof in motions for summary judgment.

 

 

Rule 57. Declaratory judgments.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

The procedure for obtaining a declaratory judgment pursuant to Utah Code Title 78B, Chapter 6, Part 4, shall be in accordance with these rules, and the right to trial by jury may be demanded under the circumstances and in the manner provided in Rules 38 and 39. The existence of another adequate remedy does not preclude a judgment for declaratory relief in cases where it is appropriate. The court may order a speedy hearing of an action for a declaratory judgment and may advance it on the calendar.

 

 

Rule 58A. Entry of judgment; abstract of judgment.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2016

(a) Separate document required. Every judgment and amended judgment must be set out in a separate document ordinarily titled “Judgment”—or, as appropriate, “Decree.”

(b) Separate document not required.A separate document is not required for an order disposing of a post-judgment motion:

(b)(1) for judgment under Rule 50(b);

(b)(2) to amend or make additional findings under Rule 52(b);

(b)(3) for a new trial, or to alter or amend the judgment, under Rule 59;

(b)(4) for relief under Rule 60; or

(b)(5) for attorney fees under Rule 73.

(c) Preparing a judgment.

(c)(1) Preparing and serving a proposed judgment. The prevailing party or a party directed by the court must prepare and serve on the other parties a proposed judgment for review and approval as to form. The proposed judgment shall be served within 14 days after the jury verdict or after the court’s decision. If the prevailing party or party directed by the court fails to timely serve a proposed judgment, any other party may prepare a proposed judgment and serve it on the other parties for review and approval as to form.

(c)(2) Effect of approval as to form. A party’s approval as to form of a proposed judgment certifies that the proposed judgment accurately reflects the verdict or the court’s decision. Approval as to form does not waive objections to the substance of the judgment.

(c)(3) Objecting to a proposed judgment. A party may object to the form of the proposed judgment by filing an objection within 7 days after the judgment is served.

(c)(4) Filing proposed judgment. The party preparing a proposed judgment must file it:

(c)(4)(A) after all other parties have approved the form of the judgment; (The party preparing the proposed judgment must indicate the means by which approval was received: in person; by telephone; by signature; by email; etc.)

(c)(4)(B) after the time to object to the form of the judgment has expired; (The party preparing the proposed judgment must also file a certificate of service of the proposed judgment.) or

(c)(4)(C) within 7 days after a party has objected to the form of the judgment. (The party preparing the proposed judgment may also file a response to the objection.)

(d) Judge’s signature; judgment filed with the clerk. Except as provided in paragraph (h) and Rule 55(b)(1), all judgments must be signed by the judge and filed with the clerk. The clerk must promptly record all judgments in the docket.

(e) Time of entry of judgment.

(e)(1) If a separate document is not required, a judgment is complete and is entered when it is signed by the judge and recorded in the docket.

(e)(2) If a separate document is required, a judgment is complete and is entered at the earlier of these events:

(e)(2)(A) the judgment is set out in a separate document signed by the judge and recorded in the docket; or

(e)(2)(B) 150 days have run from the clerk recording the decision, however designated, that provides the basis for the entry of judgment.

(f) Award of attorney fees.A motion or claim for attorney fees does not affect the finality of a judgment for any purpose, but under Rule of Appellate Procedure 4, the time in which to file the notice of appeal runs from the disposition of the motion or claim.

(g) Notice of judgment. The party preparing the judgment shall promptly serve a copy of the signed judgment on the other parties in the manner provided in Rule 5 and promptly file proof of service with the court. Except as provided in Rule of Appellate Procedure 4(g), the time for filing a notice of appeal is not affected by this requirement.

(h) Judgment after death of a party. If a party dies after a verdict or decision upon any issue of fact and before judgment, judgment may nevertheless be entered.

(i) Judgment by confession. If a judgment by confession is authorized by statute, the party seeking the judgment must file with the clerk a statement, verified by the defendant, as follows:

(i)(1) If the judgment is for money due or to become due, the statement must concisely state the claim and that the specified sum is due or to become due.

(i)(2) If the judgment is for the purpose of securing the plaintiff against a contingent liability, the statement must state concisely the claim and that the specified sum does not exceed the liability.

(i)(3) The statement must authorize the entry of judgment for the specified sum.

The clerk must sign the judgment for the specified sum.

(j) Abstract of judgment. The clerk may abstract a judgment by a signed writing under seal of the court that:

(j)(1) identifies the court, the case name, the case number, the judge or clerk that signed the judgment, the date the judgment was signed, and the date the judgment was recorded in the registry of actions and the registry of judgments;

(j)(2) states whether the time for appeal has passed and whether an appeal has been filed;

(j)(3) states whether the judgment has been stayed and when the stay will expire; and

(j)(4) if the language of the judgment is known to the clerk, quotes verbatim the operative language of the judgment or attaches a copy of the judgment.


Advisory Committee Notes

2015 amendments

The 2015 amendments to Rule 58A adopt the requirement, found in Rule 58 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, that a judgment be set out in a separate document. In the past, problems have arisen when the district court entered a decision with dispositive language, but without the other formal elements of a judgment, resulting in uncertainty about whether the decision started the time for appeals. This problem was compounded by uncertainty under Rule 7 about whether the decision was the court’s final ruling on the matter or whether the prevailing party was expected to prepare an order confirming the decision.

The 2015 amendments of Rule 7, Rule 54 and Rule 58A are intended to reduce this confusion by requiring “that there be a judgment set out on a separate document—distinct from any opinion or memorandum—which provides the basis for the entry of judgment.” See Advisory Committee Notes to 1963 Amendments to Fed. R. Civ. P. 58. Courts and practitioners are encouraged to use appropriate titles with separate documents intended to operate as judgments, such as “Judgment” or “Decree,” and to avoid using such titles on documents that are not appealable. The parties should consider the form of judgment included in the Appendix of Forms. On the question of what constitutes a separate document, the Committee refers courts and practitioners to existing case law interpreting Fed. R. Civ. P. 58. For example, In re Cendant Corp., 454 F.3d 235, 242-244 (3d Cir. 2006) offers three criteria:

1) the judgment must be set forth in a document that is independent of the court’s opinion or decision;

2) it must contain ordering clauses stating the relief to which the prevailing party is entitled, and not merely refer to orders made in other documents or state that a motion has been granted; and

3) it must substantially omit recitation of facts, procedural history, and the reasons for disposing of the parties’ claims.

While “some trivial departures” from these criteria—such as a one-sentence explanation of reasoning, a single citation to authority, or a reference to a separate memorandum decision—“must be tolerated in the name of common sense,” any explanation must be “very sparse.” Kidd v. District of Columbia, 206 F.3d 35, 39 (D.C. Cir. 2000).

The concurrent amendments to Rule 7 remove the separate document requirement formerly applicable to interlocutory orders. Henceforward, the separate document requirement will apply only to judgments, a change that should reduce the tendency to confuse judgments with other orders. Rule 7 has also been amended to modify the process by which orders on motions are prepared. The process for preparing judgments is the same.

Under amended Rule 7(j), a written decision, however designated, is complete—is the judge’s last word on the motion—when it is signed, unless the court expressly requests a party to prepare an order confirming the decision. But this should not be confused with the need to prepare a separate judgment when the decision has the effect of disposing of all clams in the case. If a decision disposes of all claims in the action, a separate judgment is required whether or not the court directs a party to prepare an order confirming the decision.

State Rule 58A is similar to Fed. R. Civ. P. 58 in determining the time of entry of judgment when a separate document is required but not prepared. This situation involves the “hanging appeals” problem that the Supreme Court asked this Committee to address in Central Utah Water Conservancy District v. King, 2013 UT 13, ¶27. Under the 2015 amendments, if a separate document is required but is not prepared, judgment is deemed to have been entered 150 days from the date the decision—or the order confirming the decision—was entered on the docket.

2016 amendments

The 2016 amendments in paragraphs (b) and (f) are part of a coordinated effort with the Advisory Committee on the Rules of Appellate Procedure to change the effect of a motion for attorney fees on the appealability of a judgment. The combined amendments of this rule and Rule of Appellate Procedure 4 effectively overturn ProMax Development Corp. v. Raile, 2000 UT 4, 998 P.2d 254 and Meadowbrook, LLC v. Flower, 959 P.2d 115 (Utah 1998). Paragraph (f) also addresses any doubts about the enforceability of a judgment while a motion for attorney fees is pending.

Under ProMax and Meadowbrook a judgment was not final until the claim for attorney fees had been resolved. An appeal filed before a claim for attorney fees had been resolved was premature and would be dismissed. Under the 2016 amendments, the time to appeal runs from the order disposing of a timely motion for attorney fees, just as it does timely motions under Rules 50, 52 and 59. The 2016 amendments to appellate Rule 4(b) also add a motion under Rule 60(b), but only if the motion is filed within 28 days after the judgment.

If a notice of appeal is filed before the order resolving the timely motion, the appeal is not dismissed; it is treated as filed on the day the order ultimately is entered, although the party must file an amended notice of appeal to appeal from the order disposing of the motion.

Although this change overturns ProMax and Meadowbrook, it is not the same as the federal rule. Under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 58(e):

Ordinarily, the entry of judgment may not be delayed, nor the time for appeal extended, in order to tax costs or award fees. But if a timely motion for attorney's fees is made under Rule 54(d)(2), the court may act before a notice of appeal has been filed and become effective to order that the motion have the same effect under Federal Rule of Appellate Procedure 4 (a)(4) as a timely motion under Rule 59.

In other words, a motion for attorney fees extends the time to appeal, but only if the trial court judge rules that it does. In the 2016 amendment of the state rules, a timely motion for attorney fees automatically has that effect.

Although the 2016 amendments change a policy of long standing in the Utah state courts, the amendments will help to protect the appellate rights of parties and avoid the cost of premature appeals.


 

 

Rule 58B. Satisfaction of judgment.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2019

(a) Satisfaction by acknowledgment.

(a)(1) Within 28 days after full satisfaction of the judgment, the judgment creditor or the judgment creditor’s attorney must file an acknowledgment of satisfaction in the court in which the judgment was entered. If the judgment creditor is not the original judgment creditor, the judgment creditor or judgment creditor’s attorney must also file proof of ownership. If the satisfaction is for part of the judgment or for fewer than all of the judgment debtors, it must state the amount paid or name the debtors who are released.

(a)(2) Pursuant to Rule 58 of the Utah Rules of Juvenile Procedure, the juvenile court will file an abstract of judgment in the district court upon entering an unpaid restitution order as a civil judgment. If the judgment falls under Rule 58 of the Utah Rules of Juvenile Procedure, the judgment creditor must file an acknowledgment of satisfaction in both the district court and the juvenile court within 28 days after full satisfaction of the judgment.

(b) Satisfaction by order of court. The court in which the judgment was first entered may, upon motion and satisfactory proof, enter an order declaring the judgment satisfied.

(c) Effect of satisfaction. Satisfaction of a judgment, whether by acknowledgement or order, discharges the judgment, and the judgment ceases to be a lien as to the debtors named and to the extent of the amount paid. A writ of execution or a writ of garnishment issued after partial satisfaction must include the partial satisfaction and must direct the officer to collect only the balance of the judgment, or to collect only from the judgment debtors remaining liable.

(d) Filing certificate of satisfaction in other counties. After satisfaction of a judgment, whether by acknowledgement or order, has been entered in the court in which the judgment was first entered, a certificate by the clerk showing the satisfaction may be filed with the clerk of the district court in any other county where the judgment has been entered.

 

 

Rule 58C. Motion to renew judgment.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2016

(a) Motion. A judgment creditor may renew a judgment by filing a motion under Rule 7 in the original action before the statute of limitations on the original judgment expires. A copy of the judgment must be filed with the motion.

(b) Affidavit. The motion must be supported by an affidavit:

(b)(1) accounting for the original judgment and all post-judgment payments, credits, and other adjustments provided for by law or contained in the original judgment; and

(b)(2) affirming that notice was sent to the most current address known for the judgment debtor, stating what efforts the creditor has made to determine whether it is the debtor’s correct address.

(c) Effective date of renewed judgment. If the court grants the motion, the court will enter an order renewing the original judgment from the date of entry of the order or from the scheduled expiration date of the original judgment, whichever occurs first. The statute of limitations on the renewed judgment runs from the date the order is signed and entered.


Advisory Committee Note

The Renewal of Judgment Act (Utah Code Sections 78B-6-1801 through 78B-6-1804) allows a domestic judgment to be renewed by motion, and Section 78B-5-302 governs domesticating a foreign judgment, which can then be renewed by motion. The statute of limitations on an action for failure to pay a judgment is governed by Section 78B-2-311.

 

 

Rule 59. New trial; altering or amending a judgment.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2023

(a) Grounds. Except as limited by Rule 61, a new trial may be granted to any party on any issue for any of the following reasons:

(1) irregularity in the proceedings of the court, jury or opposing party, or any order of the court, or abuse of discretion by which a party was prevented from having a fair trial;

(2) misconduct of the jury, which may be proved by the affidavit or declaration of any juror;

(3) accident or surprise that ordinary prudence could not have guarded against;

(4) newly discovered material evidence that could not, with reasonable diligence, have been discovered and produced at the trial;

(5) excessive or inadequate damages that appear to have been given under the influence of passion or prejudice;

(6) insufficiency of the evidence to justify the verdict or other decision; or

(7) that the verdict or decision is contrary to law or based on an error in law.

(b) Time for motion. A motion for a new trial must be filed no later than 28 days after entry of the judgment. When the motion for a new trial is filed under paragraph (a)(1), (2), (3), or (4), it must be supported by affidavits or declarations. If a motion for a new trial is supported by affidavits or declarations, they must be served with the motion.

(c) Further action after non-jury trial. After a nonjury trial, the court may, on motion for a new trial, open the judgment if one has been entered, take additional testimony, amend findings of fact and conclusions of law or make new ones, and direct entry of a new judgment.

(d) New trial on initiative of court or for reasons not in the motion. No later than 28 days after entry of the judgment the court, on its own, may order a new trial for any reason that would justify a new trial on motion of a party. After giving the parties notice and an opportunity to be heard, the court may grant a timely motion for a new trial for a reason not stated in the motion. The order granting a new trial must state the reasons for the new trial.

(e) Motion to alter or amend a judgment. Unless otherwise provided for by statute or rule, a motion to alter or amend the judgment must be filed no later than 28 days after entry of the judgment.

 

 

Rule 60. Relief from judgment or order.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2016

(a) Clerical mistakes. The court may correct a clerical mistake or a mistake arising from oversight or omission whenever one is found in a judgment, order, or other part of the record. The court may do so on motion or on its own, with or without notice. After a notice of appeal has been filed and while the appeal is pending, the mistake may be corrected only with leave of the appellate court.

(b) Mistakes; inadvertence; excusable neglect; newly discovered evidence; fraud, etc. On motion and upon just terms, the court may relieve a party or its legal representative from a judgment, order, or proceeding for the following reasons:

(b)(1) mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or excusable neglect;

(b)(2) newly discovered evidence which by due diligence could not have been discovered in time to move for a new trial under Rule 59(b);

(b)(3) fraud (whether previously called intrinsic or extrinsic), misrepresentation or other misconduct of an opposing party;

(b)(4) the judgment is void;

(b)(5) the judgment has been satisfied, released, or discharged, or a prior judgment upon which it is based has been reversed or vacated, or it is no longer equitable that the judgment should have prospective application; or

(b)(6) any other reason that justifies relief.

(c) Timing and effect of the motion. A motion under paragraph (b) must be filed within a reasonable time and for reasons in paragraph (b)(1), (2), or (3), not more than 90 days after entry of the judgment or order or, if there is no judgment or order, from the date of the proceeding. The motion does not affect the finality of a judgment or suspend its operation.

(d) Other power to grant relief. This rule does not limit the power of a court to entertain an independent action to relieve a party from a judgment, order or proceeding or to set aside a judgment for fraud upon the court. The procedure for obtaining any relief from a judgment shall be by motion as prescribed in these rules or by an independent action.


Advisory Committee Notes

The 1998 amendment eliminates as grounds for a motion the following: "(4) when, for any cause, the summons in an action has not been personally served upon the defendant as required by Rule 4(e) and the defendant has failed to appear in said action." This basis for a motion is not found in the federal rule. The committee concluded the clause was ambiguous and possibly in conflict with rule permitting service by means other than personal service.

2016 amendments

The deadlines for a motion are as stated in this rule, but if a motion under paragraph (b) is filed within 28 days after the judgment, it will have the same effect on the time to appeal as a motion under Rule 50, 52, or 59. See the 2016 amendments to Rule of Appellate Procedure 4(b).

 

 

Rule 61. Harmless error.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

No error in either the admission or the exclusion of evidence, and no error or defect in any ruling or order or in anything done or omitted by the court or by any of the parties, is ground for granting a new trial or otherwise disturbing a judgment or order, unless refusal to take such action appears to the court inconsistent with substantial justice. The court at every stage of the proceeding must disregard any error or defect in the proceeding which does not affect the substantial rights of the parties.

 

 

Rule 62. Stay of proceedings to enforce a judgment or order.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2021

(a) Delay in executionNo execution or other writ to enforce a judgment or an order to pay money under Rule 7(j)(8) may issue until the expiration of 28 days after entry of the judgment or order, unless the court in its discretion otherwise directs.

(b) Stay by bond or other security; duration of stay. A party may obtain a stay of the enforcement of a judgment or order to pay money by providing a bond or other security, unless a stay is otherwise prohibited by law or these rules.

(1) The stay takes affect when the court approves the bond or other security and remains in effect for the time specified in the order that approves the bond or other security.

(2) In its discretion and on such conditions for the security of the adverse party as are proper, the court may stay:

(A) an order that is certified as final under Rule 54(b) until the entry of a final judgment under Rule 58A;

(B) an order to pay money under Rule 7(j)(8) until the entry of a judgment under Rule 58A;

(C) a judgment until resolution of any motion made pursuant to Rule 50(b), Rule 52(b), Rule 59, Rule 60, or Rule 73; and

(D) a judgment until resolution of a motion made under this rule.

(c) Injunction pending appeal. When a party seeks an appeal from an interlocutory order, or takes an appeal from a judgment, granting, dissolving, or denying an injunction, the court in its discretion may suspend, modify, restore, or grant an injunction during the pendency of appellate proceedings upon such conditions for the security of the rights of the adverse party as are just.

(d) Stay in favor of the United States, the State of Utah, or political subdivision. When an appeal is taken by the United States, the State of Utah, a political subdivision, or an officer of agency of any of those entities, or by direction of any department of any of those entities, and the operation or enforcement of the judgment is stayed, no bond, obligation, or other security is required from the appellant.

(e) Stay in quo warranto proceedings. Where the defendant is adjudged guilty of usurping, intruding into or unlawfully holding public office, civil or military, within this state, the execution of the judgment shall not be stayed on an appeal.

(f) Power of appellate court not limited. The provisions in this rule do not limit any power of an appellate court or of a judge or justice of an appellate court.

(g) Form of bond; deposit in lieu of bond; stipulation on security; jurisdiction over sureties to be set forth in undertaking.

(1) A bond given under Subdivision (b) may be either a commercial bond having a surety authorized to transact insurance business under Title 31A, or a personal bond having one or more sureties who are residents of Utah having a collective net worth of at least twice the amount of the bond, exclusive of property exempt form execution. Sureties on personal bonds shall make and file a declaration setting forth in reasonable detail the assets and liabilities of the surety.

(2) The court may permit a deposit of money in court or other security to be given in lieu of giving a bond.

(3) The parties may by written stipulation agree to the form and amount of security.

(4) A bond shall provide that each surety submits to the jurisdiction of the court and irrevocably appoints the clerk of the court as the surety’s agent upon whom any papers affecting the surety’s liability on the bond may be served, and that the surety’s liability may be enforced on motion and upon such notice as the court may require without the necessity of an independent action.

(h) Amount of bond or other security.

(1) Except as provided in subsection (h)(2), a court shall set the bond or other security in an amount that adequately protects the adverse party against loss or damage occasioned by the stay and assures payment after the stay ends. In setting the amount, the court may consider any relevant factor including:

(A) the debtor’s ability to pay the judgment or order to pay money;

(B) the existence and value of other security;

(C) the debtor’s opportunity to dissipate assets;

(D) the debtor’s likelihood of success on appeal; and

(E) the respective harm to the parties from setting a higher or lower amount.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (h)(1):

(A) the presumptive amount of a bond or other security for compensatory damages is the amount of the compensatory damages plus costs and attorney fees; as applicable, plus 3 years of interest at the applicable interest rate;

(B) the bond or other security for compensatory damages shall not exceed $25 million in an action by the plaintiffs certified as a class under Rule 23 or in an action by multiple plaintiffs in which compensatory damages are not proved for each plaintiff individually; and

(C) no bond or other security shall be required for punitive damages.

(3) If the court permits a bond or other security that is less than the presumptive amount in subsection (h)(2)(A), the court may enter such orders as are necessary to protect the adverse party during the stay.

(4) If the court finds that the party seeking the stay has violated an order or has otherwise dissipated assets, the court may set the amount of the bond or other security without regard to the presumptive amount under subsection (h)(1) and limits in subsection (h)(2).

(i) Objecting to sufficiency or amount of security. Any party whose judgment or order to pay money is stayed or sought to be stayed pursuant to Subdivision (b) may object to the sufficiency of the sureties on a bond or the amount thereof, or to the sufficiency of amount of other security given to stay the judgment by filing and giving notice of such objection. Either party shall be entitled to a hearing on the objection upon five days notice or such shorter time as the court may order. The burden of justifying the sufficiency of the sureties or other security and the amount of the bond of other security, shall be borne by the party seeking the stay, unless the objecting party seeks a bond or other security in an amount greater than the presumed amount in subsection (h)(2)(A). The fact that a bond, its surety or other security is generally permitted under this rule shall not be conclusive as to its sufficiency or amount.

 

 

Rule 63. Disability or disqualification of a judge.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/8/2018

(a) Substitute judge; Prior testimony. If the judge to whom an action has been assigned is unable to perform his or her duties, then any other judge of that district or any judge assigned pursuant to Judicial Council rule is authorized to perform those duties. The judge to whom the case is reassigned may rehear the evidence or some part of it.

(b) Motion to disqualify; affidavit or declaration.

(b)(1) A party to an action or the party's attorney may file a motion to disqualify a judge. The motion must be accompanied by a certificate that the motion is filed in good faith and must be supported by an affidavit or unsworn declaration as described in Title 78B, Chapter 18a, Uniform Unsworn Declarations Act stating facts sufficient to show bias, prejudice or conflict of interest. The motion must also be accompanied by a request to submit for decision.

(b)(2) The motion must be filed after commencement of the action, but not later than 21 days after the last of the following:

(b)(2)(A) assignment of the action or hearing to the judge;

(b)(2)(B) appearance of the party or the party's attorney; or

(b)(2)(C) the date on which the moving party knew or should have known of the grounds upon which the motion is based.

If the last event occurs fewer than 21 days before a hearing, the motion must be filed as soon as practicable.

(b)(3) Signing the motion or affidavit or declaration constitutes a certificate under Rule 11 and subjects the party or attorney to the procedures and sanctions of Rule 11.

(b)(4) No party may file more than one motion to disqualify in an action, unless the second or subsequent motion is based on grounds that the party did not know of and could not have known of at the time of the earlier motion.

(b)(5) If timeliness of the motion is determined under paragraph (b)(2)(C) or paragraph (b)(4), the affidavit or declaration supporting the motion must state when and how the party came to know of the reason for disqualification.

(c) Reviewing judge.

(c)(1) The judge who is the subject of the motion must, without further hearing or a response from another party, enter an order granting the motion or certifying the motion and affidavit or declaration to a reviewing judge. The judge must take no further action in the case until the motion is decided. If the judge grants the motion, the order will direct the presiding judge of the court to assign another judge to the action or hearing. Assignment in justice court cases will be in accordance with Utah Code of Judicial Administration Rule 9-109. The presiding judge of the court, any judge of the district, or any judge of a court of like jurisdiction may serve as the reviewing judge.

(c)(2) If the reviewing judge finds that the motion and affidavit or declaration are timely filed, filed in good faith and legally sufficient, the reviewing judge shall assign another judge to the action or hearing or request the presiding judge to do so. Assignment in justice court cases will be in accordance with Utah Code of Judicial Administration Rule 9-109.

(c)(3) In determining issues of fact or of law, the reviewing judge may consider any part of the record of the action and may request of the judge who is the subject of the motion an affidavit or declaration responding to questions posed by the reviewing judge.

(c)(4) The reviewing judge may deny a motion not filed in a timely manner.

Effective May 8, 2018 pursuant to CJA Rule 11-105(5)

 

 

Rule 63A. Change of judge as a matter of right.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Notice of change. Except in actions with only one party, all parties joined in the action may, by unanimous agreement and without cause, change the judge assigned to the action by filing a notice of change of judge. The parties shall send a copy of the notice to the assigned judge and the presiding judge. The notice shall be signed by all parties and shall state: (1) the name of the assigned judge; (2) the date on which the action was commenced; (3) that all parties joined in the action have agreed to the change; (4) that no other persons are expected to be named as parties; and (5) that a good faith effort has been made to serve all parties named in the pleadings. The notice shall not specify any reason for the change of judge. Under no circumstances shall more than one change of judge be allowed under this rule in an action.

(b) Time. Unless extended by the court upon a showing of good cause, the notice must be filed within 90 days after commencement of the action or prior to the notice of trial setting, whichever occurs first. Failure to file a timely notice precludes any change of judge under this rule.

(c) Assignment of action. Upon the filing of a notice of change, the assigned judge shall take no further action in the case. The presiding judge shall promptly determine whether the notice is proper and, if so, shall reassign the action. If the presiding judge is also the assigned judge, the clerk shall promptly send the notice to the associate presiding judge, to another judge of the district, or to any judge of a court of like jurisdiction, who shall determine whether the notice is proper and, if so, shall reassign the action.

(d) Nondisclosure to court. No party shall communicate to the court, or cause another to communicate to the court, the fact of any party's seeking consent to a notice of change.

(e) Rule 63 unaffected. This rule does not affect any rights under Rule 63.

 

 

Rule 64. Writs in general.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2024

(a) Definitions. As used in Rules 64,64A,64B,64C,64D,64E,69A,69B and 69C:

(1) "Claim" means a claim, counterclaim, cross claim, third party claim or any other claim.

(2) "Defendant" means the party against whom a claim is filed or against whom judgment has been entered.

(3) "Deliver" means actual delivery or to make the property available for pick up and give to the person entitled to delivery written notice of availability.

(4) "Disposable earnings" means that part of earnings for a pay period remaining after the deduction of all amounts required by law to be withheld.

(5) "Earnings" means compensation, however denominated, paid or payable to an individual for personal services, including periodic payments pursuant to a pension or retirement program. Earnings accrue on the last day of the period in which they were earned.

(6) "Notice of exemptions" means a form that advises the defendant or a third person that certain property is or may be exempt from seizure under state or federal law. The notice shall list examples of exempt property and indicate that other exemptions may be available. The notice shall instruct the defendant of the deadline for filing a reply and request for hearing.

(7) "Officer" means any person designated by the court to whom the writ is issued, including a sheriff, constable, deputy thereof, or any person appointed by the officer to hold the property.

(8) "Plaintiff" means the party filing a claim or in whose favor judgment has been entered.

(9) "Property" means the defendant's property of any type not exempt from seizure. Property includes but is not limited to real and personal property, tangible and intangible property, the right to property whether due or to become due, and an obligation of a third person to perform for the defendant.

(10) "Serve" with respect to parties means any method of service authorized by Rule5 and with respect to non-parties means any manner of service authorized by Rule 4.

(b) Security.

(1) Amount. When security is required of a party, the party shall provide security in the sum and form the court deems adequate. For security by the plaintiff the amount should be sufficient to reimburse other parties for damages, costs, and attorney fees incurred as a result of a writ wrongfully obtained. For security by the defendant, the amount should be equivalent to the amount of the claim or judgment or the value of the defendant's interest in the property. In fixing the amount, the court may consider any relevant factor. The court may relieve a party from the necessity of providing security if it appears that none of the parties will incur damages, costs or attorney fees as a result of a writ wrongfully obtained or if there exists some other substantial reason for dispensing with security. The amount of security does not establish or limit the amount of damages, costs, or attorney fees recoverable if the writ is wrongfully obtained.

(2) Jurisdiction over surety. A surety submits to the jurisdiction of the court and irrevocably appoints the court clerk as agent upon whom papers affecting the surety's liability may be served. The surety must file with the court clerk the address to which the clerk may mail papers. The surety's liability may be enforced on motion without the necessity of an independent action. If the opposing party recovers judgment or if the writ is wrongfully obtained, the surety must pay the judgment, damages, costs, and attorney fees not to exceed the sum specified in the contract. The surety is responsible for return of property ordered returned.

(3) Objection. The court may issue additional writs upon the original security subject to the objection of the opposing party. The opposing party may object to the sufficiency of the security or the sufficiency of the sureties within five days after service of the writ. The burden to show the sufficiency of the security and the sufficiency of the sureties is on the proponent of the security.

(4) Security of governmental entity. No security is required of the United States, the State of Utah, or an officer, agency, or subdivision of either, nor when prohibited by law.

(c) Procedures in aid of writs.

(1) Referee. The court may appoint a referee to monitor hearings under this subsection.

(2) Hearing; witnesses; discovery. The court may conduct hearings as necessary to identify property and to apply the property toward the satisfaction of the judgment or order. Witnesses may be subpoenaed to appear, testify, and produce records. The court may permit discovery.

(3) Restraint. The court may forbid any person from transferring, disposing, or interfering with the property.

(d) Issuance of writ; service

(1) Clerk to issue writs. The court clerk will issue writs. A court in which a transcript or abstract of a judgment or order has been filed has the same authority to issue a writ as the court that entered the judgment or order. If the writ directs the seizure of real property, the court clerk will issue the writ to the sheriff of the county in which the real property is located. If the writ directs the seizure of personal property, the court clerk may issue the writ to an officer of any county.

(2) Content. The writ may direct the officer to seize the property, to keep the property safe, to deliver the property to the plaintiff, to sell the property, or to take other specified actions. If the writ is to enforce a judgment or order for the payment of money, the writ will specify the amount ordered to be paid and the amount due.

(A) If the writ is issued ex parte before judgment, the clerk will attach to the writ plaintiff's affidavit, detailed description of the property, notice of hearing, order authorizing the writ, notice of exemptions, and reply form.

(B) If the writ is issued before judgment but after a hearing, the clerk shall attach to the writ plaintiff's affidavit and detailed description of the property.

(C) If the writ is issued after judgment, the clerk will attach to the writ plaintiff's application, detailed description of the property, the judgment, notice of exemptions, and reply form.

(3) Service.

(A) Upon whom; effective date. The officer must serve the writ and accompanying papers on the defendant, and, as applicable, the garnishee and any person named by the plaintiff as claiming an interest in the property. The officer may simultaneously serve notice of the date, time, and place of sale. A writ is effective upon service.

(B) Limits on writs of garnishment.

(i) A writ of garnishment served while a previous writ of garnishment is in effect is effective upon expiration of the previous writ; otherwise, a writ of garnishment is effective upon service.

(ii) Only one writ of garnishment of earnings may be in effect at one time. One additional writ of garnishment of earnings for a subsequent pay period may be served on the garnishee while an earlier writ of continuing garnishment is in effect.

(C) Return; inventory. Within 14 days after service, the officer must return the writ to the court with proof of service. If property has been seized, the officer shall include an inventory of the property and whether the property is held by the officer or the officer's designee. If a person refuses to give the officer an affidavit describing the property, the officer must indicate the fact of refusal on the return, and the court may require that person to pay the costs of any proceeding taken for the purpose of obtaining such information.

(D) Service of writ by publication. The court may order service of a writ by publication upon a person entitled to notice in circumstances in which service by publication of a summons and complaint would be appropriate under Rule 4.

(i) If service of a writ is by publication, substantially the following must be published under the caption of the case:

To ________________________, [Defendant/Garnishee/Claimant]:

A writ of ___________ has been issued in the above-captioned case commanding the officer of __________________ County as follows:

[Quoting body of writ]

Your rights may be adversely affected by these proceedings. Property in which you have an interest may be seized to pay a judgment or order. You have the right to claim property exempt from seizure under statutes of the United States or this state, including Utah Code,Title 78B, Chapter 5, Part 5.

(ii) The notice must be published in a newspaper of general circulation in each county in which the property is located at least 14 days prior to the due date for the reply or at least 14 days prior to the date of any sale, or as the court orders. The date of publication is the date of service.

(e) Claim to property by third person.

(1) Claimant's rights. Any person claiming an interest in the property has the same rights and obligations as the defendant with respect to the writ and with respect to providing and objecting to security. Any claimant named by the plaintiff and served with the writ and accompanying papers must exercise those rights and obligations within the same time allowed the defendant. Any claimant not named by the plaintiff and not served with the writ and accompanying papers may exercise those rights and obligations at any time before the property is sold or delivered to the plaintiff.

(2) Join claimant as defendant. The court may order any named claimant joined as a defendant in interpleader. The plaintiff must serve the order on the claimant. The claimant is thereafter a defendant to the action and must answer within 14 days, setting forth any claim or defense. The court may enter judgment for or against the claimant to the limit of the claimant's interest in the property.

(3) Plaintiff's security. If the plaintiff requests that an officer seize or sell property claimed by a person other than the defendant, the officer may request that the court require the plaintiff to file security.

(f) Discharge of writ; release of property.

(1) By defendant. At any time before notice of sale of the property or before the property is delivered to the plaintiff, the defendant may file security and a motion to discharge the writ. The plaintiff may object to the sufficiency of the security or the sufficiency of the sureties within seven days after service of the motion. At any time before notice of sale of the property or before the property is delivered to the plaintiff, the defendant may file a motion to discharge the writ on the ground that the writ was wrongfully obtained. The court will give the plaintiff reasonable opportunity to correct a defect. The defendant must serve the order to discharge the writ upon the officer, plaintiff, garnishee, and any third person claiming an interest in the property.

(2) By plaintiff. The plaintiff may discharge the writ by filing a release and serving it upon the officer, defendant, garnishee, and any third person claiming an interest in the property.

(3) Disposition of property. If the writ is discharged, the court will order any remaining property and proceeds of sales delivered to the defendant.

(4) Copy recorded with county recorder. If an order discharges a writ upon property seized by recording with the county recorder, the officer or a party must record a certified copy of the order with the county recorder.

(5) Service on officer; disposition of property. If the order discharging the writ is served on the officer:

(A) before the writ is served, the officer must return the writ to the court;

(B) while the property is in the officer's custody, the officer must return the property to the defendant; or

(C) after the property is sold, the officer must deliver any remaining sale proceeds to the defendant.

 

 

Rule 64A. Prejudgment writs in general.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2014

(a) Availability. A writ of replevin, attachment or garnishment is available after the claim has been filed and before judgment only upon written order of the court.

(b) Motion; affidavit. To obtain a writ of replevin, attachment or garnishment before judgment, plaintiff shall file a motion, security as ordered by the court and an affidavit stating facts showing the grounds for relief and other information required by these rules. If the plaintiff cannot by due diligence determine the facts necessary to support the affidavit, the plaintiff shall explain in the affidavit the steps taken to determine the facts and why the facts could not be determined. The affidavit supporting the motion shall state facts in simple, concise and direct terms that are not conclusory.

(c) Grounds for prejudgment writ. Grounds for a prejudgment writ include, in addition to the grounds for the specific writ, all of the requirements listed in subsections (c)(1) through (c)(3) and at least one of the requirements listed in subsections (c)(4) through (c)(10):

(c)(1) that the property is not earnings and not exempt from execution; and

(c)(2) that the writ is not sought to hinder, delay or defraud a creditor of the defendant; and

(c)(3) a substantial likelihood that the plaintiff will prevail on the merits of the underlying claim; and

(c)(4) that the defendant is avoiding service of process; or

(c)(5) that the defendant has assigned, disposed of or concealed, or is about to assign, dispose of or conceal, the property with intent to defraud creditors; or

(c)(6) that the defendant has left or is about to leave the state with intent to defraud creditors; or

(c)(7) that the defendant has fraudulently incurred the obligation that is the subject of the action; or

(c)(8) that the property will materially decline in value; or

(c)(9) that the plaintiff has an ownership or special interest in the property; or

(c)(10) probable cause of losing the remedy unless the court issues the writ.

(d) Statement. The affidavit supporting the motion shall state facts sufficient to show the following information:

(d)(1) if known, the nature, location, account number and estimated value of the property and the name, address and phone number of the person holding the property;

(d)(2) that the property has not been taken for a tax, assessment or fine;

(d)(3) that the property has not been seized under a writ against the property of the plaintiff or that it is exempt from seizure;

(d)(4) the name and address of any person known to the plaintiff to claim an interest in the property; and, if the motion is for a writ of garnishment,

(d)(5) the name and address of the garnishee; and

(d)(6) that the plaintiff has attached the garnishee fee established by Utah Code Section 78A-2-216.

(e) Notice, hearing. The court may order that a writ of replevin, attachment or garnishment be issued before judgment after notice to the defendant and opportunity to be heard.

(f) Method of service. The affidavit for the prejudgment writ shall be served on the defendant and any person named by the plaintiff as claiming an interest in the property. The affidavit shall be served in a manner directed by the court that is reasonably calculated to expeditiously give actual notice of the hearing.

(g) Reply. The defendant may file a reply to the affidavit for a prejudgment writ at least 24 hours before the hearing. The reply may:

(g)(1) challenge the issuance of the writ;

(g)(2) object to the sufficiency of the security or the sufficiency of the sureties;

(g)(3) request return of the property;

(g)(4) claim the property is exempt; or

(g)(5) claim a set off.

(h) Burden of proof. The burden is on the plaintiff to prove the facts necessary to support the writ.

(i) Ex parte writ before judgment. If the plaintiff seeks a prejudgment writ prior to a hearing, the plaintiff shall file an affidavit stating facts showing irreparable injury to the plaintiff before the defendant can be heard or other reason notice should not be given. If a writ is issued without notice to the defendant and opportunity to be heard, the court shall set a hearing for the earliest reasonable time, and the writ and the order authorizing the writ shall:

(i)(1) state the grounds for issuance without notice;

(i)(2) designate the date and time of issuance and the date and time of expiration;

(i)(3) designate the date, time and place of the hearing;

(i)(4) forthwith be filed in the clerk's office and entered of record;

(i)(5) expire 14 days after issuance unless the court establishes an earlier expiration date, the defendant consents that the order and writ be extended or the court extends the order and writ after hearing;

(i)(6) be served on the defendant and any person named by the plaintiff as claiming an interest in the property in a manner directed by the court that is reasonably calculated to expeditiously give actual notice of the hearing.

 

 

Rule 64B. Writ of replevin.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2014

(a) Availability. A writ of replevin is available to compel delivery to the plaintiff of specific personal property held by the defendant.

(b) Grounds. In addition to the grounds required in Rule 64A, the grounds for a writ of replevin require all of the following:

(b)(1) that the plaintiff is entitled to possession; and

(b)(2) that the defendant wrongfully detains the property.

 

 

Rule 64C. Writ of attachment.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 4/1/2006

(a) Availability. A writ of attachment is available to seize property in the possession or under the control of the defendant.

(b) Grounds. In addition to the grounds required in Rule 64A, the grounds for a writ of attachment require all of the following:

(b)(1) that the defendant is indebted to the plaintiff;

(b)(2)(i) that the action is upon a contract or is against a defendant who is not a resident of this state or is against a foreign corporation not qualified to do business in this state; or

(b)(2)(ii) the writ is authorized by statute; and

(b)(3) that payment of the claim has not been secured by a lien upon property in this state.

 

 

Rule 64D. Writ of garnishment.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2014

(a) Availability. A writ of garnishment is available to seize property of the defendant in the possession or under the control of a person other than the defendant. A writ of garnishment is available after final judgment or after the claim has been filed and prior to judgment. The maximum portion of disposable earnings of an individual subject to seizure is the lesser of:

(a)(1) 50% of the defendant’s disposable earnings for a writ to enforce payment of a judgment for failure to support dependent children or 25% of the defendant’s disposable earnings for any other judgment; or

(a)(2) the amount by which the defendant’s disposable earnings for a pay period exceeds the number of weeks in that pay period multiplied by thirty times the federal minimum hourly wage prescribed by the Fair Labor Standards Act in effect at the time the earnings are payable.

(b) Grounds for writ before judgment. In addition to the grounds required in Rule 64A, the grounds for a writ of garnishment before judgment require all of the following:

(b)(1) that the defendant is indebted to the plaintiff;

(b)(2) that the action is upon a contract or is against a defendant who is not a resident of this state or is against a foreign corporation not qualified to do business in this state;

(b)(3) that payment of the claim has not been secured by a lien upon property in this state;

(b)(4) that the garnishee possesses or controls property of the defendant; and

(b)(5) that the plaintiff has attached the garnishee fee established by Utah Code Section 78A-2-216.

(c) Statement. The application for a post-judgment writ of garnishment shall state:

(c)(1) if known, the nature, location, account number and estimated value of the property and the name, address and phone number of the person holding the property;

(c)(2) whether any of the property consists of earnings;

(c)(3) the amount of the judgment and the amount due on the judgment;

(c)(4) the name, address and phone number of any person known to the plaintiff to claim an interest in the property; and

(c)(5) that the plaintiff has attached or will serve the garnishee fee established by Utah Code Section 78A-2-216.

(d) Defendant identification. The plaintiff shall submit with the affidavit or application a copy of the judgment information statement described in Utah Code Section 78B-5-201 or the defendant’s name and address and, if known, the last four digits of the defendant’s social security number and driver license number and state of issuance.

(e) Interrogatories. The plaintiff shall submit with the affidavit or application interrogatories to the garnishee inquiring:

(e)(1) whether the garnishee is indebted to the defendant and the nature of the indebtedness;

(e)(2) whether the garnishee possesses or controls any property of the defendant and, if so, the nature, location and estimated value of the property;

(e)(3) whether the garnishee knows of any property of the defendant in the possession or under the control of another, and, if so, the nature, location and estimated value of the property and the name, address and phone number of the person with possession or control;

(e)(4) whether the garnishee is deducting a liquidated amount in satisfaction of a claim against the plaintiff or the defendant, a designation as to whom the claim relates, and the amount deducted;

(e)(5) the date and manner of the garnishee’s service of papers upon the defendant and any third persons;

(e)(6) the dates on which previously served writs of continuing garnishment were served; and

(e)(7) any other relevant information plaintiff may desire, including the defendant’s position, rate and method of compensation, pay period, and the computation of the amount of defendant’s disposable earnings.

(f) Content of writ; priority. The writ shall instruct the garnishee to complete the steps in subsection (g) and instruct the garnishee how to deliver the property. Several writs may be issued at the same time so long as only one garnishee is named in a writ. Priority among writs of garnishment is in order of service. A writ of garnishment of earnings applies to the earnings accruing during the pay period in which the writ is effective.

(g) Garnishee’s responsibilities. The writ shall direct the garnishee to complete the following within seven business days of service of the writ upon the garnishee:

(g)(1) answer the interrogatories under oath or affirmation;

(g)(2) serve the answers on the plaintiff; and

(g)(3) serve the writ, answers, notice of exemptions and two copies of the reply form upon the defendant and any other person shown by the records of the garnishee to have an interest in the property.

The garnishee may amend answers to interrogatories to correct errors or to reflect a change in circumstances by serving the amended answers in the same manner as the original answers.

(h) Reply to answers; request for hearing.

(h)(1) The plaintiff or defendant may file and serve upon the garnishee a reply to the answers, a copy of the garnishee’s answers, and a request for a hearing. The reply shall be filed and served within 14 days after service of the answers or amended answers, but the court may deem the reply timely if filed before notice of sale of the property or before the property is delivered to the plaintiff. The reply may:

(h)(1)(A) challenge the issuance of the writ;

(h)(1)(B) challenge the accuracy of the answers;

(h)(1)(C) claim the property or a portion of the property is exempt; or

(h)(1)(D) claim a set off.

(h)(2) The reply is deemed denied, and the court shall conduct an evidentiary hearing as soon as possible and not to exceed 14 days.

(h)(3) If a person served by the garnishee fails to reply, as to that person:

(h)(3)(A) the garnishee’s answers are deemed correct; and

(h)(3)(B) the property is not exempt, except as reflected in the answers.

(i) Delivery of property. A garnishee shall not deliver property until the property is due the defendant. Unless otherwise directed in the writ, the garnishee shall retain the property until 21 days after service by the garnishee under subsection (g). If the garnishee is served with a reply within that time, the garnishee shall retain the property and comply with the order of the court entered after the hearing on the reply. Otherwise, the garnishee shall deliver the property as provided in the writ.

(j) Liability of garnishee.

(j)(1) A garnishee who acts in accordance with this rule, the writ or an order of the court is released from liability, unless answers to interrogatories are successfully controverted.

(j)(2)(A) If the garnishee fails to comply with this rule, the writ or an order of the court, the court may order the garnishee to appear and show cause why the garnishee should not be ordered to pay such amounts as are just, including the value of the property or the balance of the judgment, whichever is less, and reasonable costs and attorney fees incurred by parties as a result of the garnishee’s failure. If the garnishee shows that the steps taken to secure the property were reasonable, the court may excuse the garnishee’s liability in whole or in part.

(j)(2)(B) The creditor must attach to the motion for an order to show cause a statement that the creditor has in good faith conferred or attempted to confer with the garnishee in an effort to settle the issue without court action.

(j)(3) No person is liable as garnishee by reason of having drawn, accepted, made or endorsed any negotiable instrument that is not in the possession or control of the garnishee at the time of service of the writ.

(j)(4) Any person indebted to the defendant may pay to the officer the amount of the debt or so much as is necessary to satisfy the writ, and the officer’s receipt discharges the debtor for the amount paid.

(j)(5) A garnishee may deduct from the property any liquidated claim against the plaintiff or defendant.

(k) Property as security.

(k)(1) If property secures payment of a debt to the garnishee, the property need not be applied at that time but the writ remains in effect, and the property remains subject to being applied upon payment of the debt. If property secures payment of a debt to the garnishee, the plaintiff may obtain an order authorizing the plaintiff to buy the debt and requiring the garnishee to deliver the property.

(k)(2) If property secures an obligation that does not require the personal performance of the defendant and that can be performed by a third person, the plaintiff may obtain an order authorizing the plaintiff or a third person to perform the obligation and requiring the garnishee to deliver the property upon completion of performance or upon tender of performance that is refused.

(l) Writ of continuing garnishment.

(l)(1) After final judgment, the plaintiff may obtain a writ of continuing garnishment against any non-exempt periodic payment. All provisions of this rule apply to this subsection, but this subsection governs over a contrary provision.

(l)(2) A writ of continuing garnishment applies to payments to the defendant from the effective date of the writ until the earlier of the following:

(l)(2)(A) one year;

(l)(2)(B) 120 days after service of a second or subsequent writ of continuing garnishment;

(l)(2)(C) the last periodic payment;

(l)(2)(D) the judgment is stayed, vacated or satisfied in full; or

(l)(2)(E) the writ is discharged.

(l)(3) Within seven days after the end of each payment period, the garnishee shall with respect to that period:

(l)(3)(A) answer the interrogatories under oath or affirmation;

(l)(3)(B) serve the answers to the interrogatories on the plaintiff, the defendant and any other person shown by the records of the garnishee to have an interest in the property; and

(l)(3)(C) deliver the property as provided in the writ.

(l)(4) Any person served by the garnishee may reply as in subsection (g), but whether to grant a hearing is within the judge’s discretion.

(l)(5) A writ of continuing garnishment issued in favor of the Office of Recovery Services or the Department of Workforce Services of the state of Utah to recover overpayments:

(l)(5)(A) is not limited to 120 days;

(l)(5)(B) has priority over other writs of continuing garnishment; and

(l)(5)(C) if served during the term of another writ of continuing garnishment, tolls that term and preserves all priorities until the expiration of the state’s writ.

 

 

Rule 64E. Writ of execution.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2014

(a) Availability. A writ of execution is available to seize property in the possession or under the control of the defendant following entry of a final judgment or order requiring the delivery of property or the payment of money.

(b) Application. To obtain a writ of execution, the plaintiff shall file an application stating:

(b)(1) the amount of the judgment or order and the amount due on the judgment or order;

(b)(2) the nature, location and estimated value of the property; and

(b)(3) the name and address of any person known to the plaintiff to claim an interest in the property.

(c) Death of plaintiff. If the plaintiff dies, a writ of execution may be issued upon the affidavit of an authorized executor or administrator or successor in interest.

(d) Reply to writ; request for hearing.

(d)(1) The defendant may reply to the writ and request a hearing. The reply shall be filed and served within 14 days after service of the writ and accompanying papers upon the defendant.

(d)(2) The court shall set the matter for an evidentiary hearing as soon as possible and not to exceed 14 days. If the court determines that the writ was wrongfully obtained, or that property is exempt from seizure, the court shall enter an order directing the officer to release the property. If the court determines that the writ was properly issued and the property is not exempt, the court shall enter an order directing the officer to sell or deliver the property. If the date of sale has passed, notice of the rescheduled sale shall be given. No sale may be held until the court has decided upon the issues presented at the hearing.

(d)(3) If a reply is not filed, the officer shall proceed to sell or deliver the property.

(e) Mortgage foreclosure governed by statute. Utah Code Title 78B, Chapter 6, Part 9, Mortgage Foreclosure, governs mortgage foreclosure proceedings notwithstanding contrary provisions of these rules.

 

 

Rule 65A. Injunctions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 2/14/2023

(a) Preliminary injunctions.

(a)(1) Notice. No preliminary injunction shall be issued without notice to the adverse party.

(a)(2) Consolidation of hearing. Before or after the commencement of the hearing of an application for a preliminary injunction, the court may order the trial of the action on the merits to be advanced and consolidated with the hearing of the application. Even when this consolidation is not ordered, any evidence received upon an application for a preliminary injunction which would be admissible at the trial on the merits becomes part of the trial record and need not be repeated at the trial. This subdivision (a)(2) shall be so construed and applied as to save to the parties any rights they may have to trial by jury.

(b) Temporary restraining orders.

(b)(1) Notice. No temporary restraining order shall be granted without notice to the adverse party or that party's attorney unless (A) it clearly appears from specific facts shown by affidavit or by the verified complaint that immediate and irreparable injury, loss, or damage will result to the applicant before the adverse party or that party's attorney can be heard in opposition, and (B) the applicant or the applicant's attorney certifies to the court in writing as to the efforts, if any, that have been made to give notice and the reasons supporting the claim that notice should not be required.

(b)(2) Form of order. Every temporary restraining order shall be endorsed with the date and hour of issuance and shall be filed forthwith in the clerk's office and entered of record. The order shall define the injury and state why it is irreparable. The order shall expire by its terms within such time after entry, not to exceed 14 days, as the court fixes, unless within the time so fixed the order, for good cause shown, is extended for a like period or unless the party against whom the order is directed consents that it may be extended for a longer period. The reasons for the extension shall be entered of record.

(b)(3) Priority of hearing. If a temporary restraining order is granted, the motion for a preliminary injunction shall be scheduled for hearing at the earliest possible time and takes precedence over all other civil matters except older matters of the same character. When the motion comes on for hearing, the party who obtained the temporary restraining order shall have the burden to show entitlement to a preliminary injunction; if the party does not do so, the court shall dissolve the temporary restraining order.

(b)(4) Dissolution or modification. On 48 hours’ notice to the party who obtained the temporary restraining order without notice, or on such shorter notice to that party as the court may prescribe, the adverse party may appear and move its dissolution or modification. In that event the court shall proceed to hear and determine the motion as expeditiously as the ends of justice require.

(c) Security.

(c)(1) Requirement. The court shall condition issuance of the order or injunction on the giving of security by the applicant, in such sum and form as the court deems proper, unless it appears that none of the parties will incur or suffer costs, attorney fees or damage as the result of any wrongful order or injunction, or unless there exists some other substantial reason for dispensing with the requirement of security. No such security shall be required of the United States, the State of Utah, or of an officer, agency, or subdivision of either; nor shall it be required when it is prohibited by law.

(c)(2) Amount not a limitation. The amount of security shall not establish or limit the amount of costs, including reasonable attorney fees incurred in connection with the restraining order or preliminary injunction, or damages that may be awarded to a party who is found to have been wrongfully restrained or enjoined.

(c)(3) Jurisdiction over surety. A surety upon a bond or undertaking under this rule submits to the jurisdiction of the court and irrevocably appoints the clerk of the court as agent upon whom any papers affecting the surety's liability on the bond or undertaking may be served. The surety's liability may be enforced on motion without the necessity of an independent action. The motion and such notice of the motion as the court prescribes may be served on the clerk of the court who shall forthwith mail copies to the persons giving the security if their addresses are known.

(d) Form and scope. Every restraining order and order granting an injunction shall set forth the reasons for its issuance. It shall be specific in terms and shall describe in reasonable detail, and not by reference to the complaint or other document, the act or acts sought to be restrained. It shall be binding only upon the parties to the action, their officers, agents, servants, employees, and attorneys, and upon those persons in active concert or participation with them who receive notice, in person or through counsel, or otherwise, of the order. If a restraining order is granted without notice to the party restrained, it shall state the reasons justifying the court's decision to proceed without notice.

(e) Grounds. A restraining order or preliminary injunction may issue only upon a showing by the applicant that:

(e)(1) there is a substantial likelihood that the applicant will prevail on the merits of the underlying claim:

(e)(2) the applicant will suffer irreparable harm unless the order or injunction issues;

(e)(3) the threatened injury to the applicant outweighs whatever damage the proposed order or injunction may cause the party restrained or enjoined; and

(e)(4) the order or injunction, if issued, would not be adverse to the public interest.

(f) Motion for reconsideration.

(f)(1) A party enjoined or restrained by a restraining order or a preliminary injunction on February 14, 2023, may move the court to reconsider whether the order or injunction should remain in effect if the order or injunction:

(A) is in writing;

(B) is restraining or enjoining the enforcement of a law; and

(C) explicitly states that the court granted the order or injunction on the ground that the case presented serious issues on the merits which should be the subject of further litigation.

(f)(2) A motion for reconsideration under this paragraph (f) may be filed at any time before the final determination of the case.

(f)(3) Upon a motion for reconsideration, the court must determine whether the issuance of the restraining order or preliminary injunction meets the requirements in paragraph (e) regardless of the requirements for the issuance of the order or injunction on the day on which the order or injunction was issued.

(f)(4) If the court determines that the issuance of the restraining order or preliminary injunction does not meet the requirements of paragraph (e), the court must terminate the order or injunction.

(g) Domestic relations cases. Nothing in this rule shall be construed to limit the equitable powers of the courts in domestic relations cases.

 

 

Rule 65B. Extraordinary relief.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Availability of remedy. Where no other plain, speedy and adequate remedy is available, a person may petition the court for extraordinary relief on any of the grounds set forth in paragraph (b) (involving wrongful restraint on personal liberty), paragraph (c) (involving the wrongful use of public or corporate authority) or paragraph (d) (involving the wrongful use of judicial authority, the failure to exercise such authority, and actions by the Board of Pardons and Parole). There shall be no special form of writ. Except for instances governed by Rule 65C, the procedures in this rule shall govern proceedings on all petitions for extraordinary relief. To the extent that this rule does not provide special procedures, proceedings on petitions for extraordinary relief shall be governed by the procedures set forth elsewhere in these rules.

(b) Wrongful restraints on personal liberty.

(b)(1) Scope. Except for instances governed by Rule 65C, this paragraph shall govern all petitions claiming that a person has been wrongfully restrained of personal liberty, and the court may grant relief appropriate under this paragraph.

(b)(2) Commencement. The proceeding shall be commenced by filing a petition with the clerk of the court in the district in which the petitioner is restrained or the respondent resides or in which the alleged restraint is occurring.

(b)(3) Contents of the petition and attachments. The petition shall contain a short, plain statement of the facts on the basis of which the petitioner seeks relief. It shall identify the respondent and the place where the person is restrained. It shall state the cause or pretense of the restraint, if known by the petitioner. It shall state whether the legality of the restraint has already been adjudicated in a prior proceeding and, if so, the reasons for the denial of relief in the prior proceeding. The petitioner shall attach to the petition any legal process available to the petitioner that resulted in restraint. The petitioner shall also attach to the petition a copy of the pleadings filed by the petitioner in any prior proceeding that adjudicated the legality of the restraint.

(b)(4) Memorandum of authorities. The petitioner shall not set forth argument or citations or discuss authorities in the petition, but these may be set out in a separate memorandum, two copies of which shall be filed with the petition.

(b)(5) Dismissal of frivolous claims. On review of the petition, if it is apparent to the court that the legality of the restraint has already been adjudicated in a prior proceeding, or if for any other reason any claim in the petition shall appear frivolous on its face, the court shall forthwith issue an order dismissing the claim, stating that the claim is frivolous on its face and the reasons for this conclusion. The order need not state findings of fact or conclusions of law. The order shall be sent by mail to the petitioner. Proceedings on the claim shall terminate with the entry of the order of dismissal.

(b)(6) Responsive pleadings. If the petition is not dismissed as being frivolous on its face, the court shall direct the clerk of the court to serve a copy of the petition and a copy of any memorandum upon the respondent by mail. At the same time, the court may issue an order directing the respondent to answer or otherwise respond to the petition, specifying a time within which the respondent must comply. If the circumstances require, the court may also issue an order directing the respondent to appear before the court for a hearing on the legality of the restraint. An answer to a petition shall state plainly whether the respondent has restrained the person alleged to have been restrained, whether the person so restrained has been transferred to any other person, and if so, the identity of the transferee, the date of the transfer, and the reason or authority for the transfer. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit the court from ruling upon the petition based upon a dispositive motion.

(b)(7) Temporary relief. If it appears that the person alleged to be restrained will be removed from the court's jurisdiction or will suffer irreparable injury before compliance with the hearing order can be enforced, the court shall issue a warrant directing the sheriff to bring the respondent before the court to be dealt with according to law. Pending a determination of the petition, the court may place the person alleged to have been restrained in the custody of such other persons as may be appropriate.

(b)(8) Alternative service of the hearing order. If the respondent cannot be found, or if it appears that a person other than the respondent has custody of the person alleged to be restrained, the hearing order and any other process issued by the court may be served on the person having custody in the manner and with the same effect as if that person had been named as respondent in the action.

(b)(9) Avoidance of service by respondent. If anyone having custody of the person alleged to be restrained avoids service of the hearing order or attempts wrongfully to remove the person from the court's jurisdiction, the sheriff shall immediately arrest the responsible person. The sheriff shall forthwith bring the person arrested before the court to be dealt with according to law.

(b)(10) Hearing or other proceedings. In the event that the court orders a hearing, the court shall hear the matter in a summary fashion and shall render judgment accordingly. The respondent or other person having custody shall appear with the person alleged to be restrained or shall state the reasons for failing to do so. The court may nevertheless direct the respondent to bring before it the person alleged to be restrained. If the petitioner waives the right to be present at the hearing, the court shall modify the hearing order accordingly. The hearing order shall not be disobeyed for any defect of form or any misdescription in the order or the petition, if enough is stated to impart the meaning and intent of the proceeding to the respondent.

(c) Wrongful use of or failure to exercise public authority.

(c)(1) Who may petition the court; security. The attorney general may, and when directed to do so by the governor shall, petition the court for relief on the grounds enumerated in this paragraph. Any person who is not required to be represented by the attorney general and who is aggrieved or threatened by one of the acts enumerated in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph may petition the court under this paragraph if (A) the person claims to be entitled to an office unlawfully held by another or (B) if the attorney general fails to file a petition under this paragraph after receiving notice of the person's claim. A petition filed by a person other than the attorney general under this paragraph shall be brought in the name of the petitioner, and the petition shall be accompanied by an undertaking with sufficient sureties to pay any judgment for costs and damages that may be recovered against the petitioner in the proceeding. The sureties shall be in the form for bonds on appeal provided for in Rule 73.

(c)(2) Grounds for relief. Appropriate relief may be granted: (A) where a person usurps, intrudes into, or unlawfully holds or exercises a public office, whether civil or military, a franchise, or an office in a corporation created by the authority of the state of Utah; (B) where a public officer does or permits any act that results in a forfeiture of the office; (C) where persons act as a corporation in the state of Utah without being legally incorporated; (D) where any corporation has violated the laws of the state of Utah relating to the creation, alteration or renewal of corporations; or (E) where any corporation has forfeited or misused its corporate rights, privileges or franchises.

(c)(3) Proceedings on the petition. On the filing of a petition, the court may require that notice be given to adverse parties before issuing a hearing order, or may issue a hearing order requiring the adverse party to appear at the hearing on the merits. The court may also grant temporary relief in accordance with the terms of Rule 65A.

(d) Wrongful use of judicial authority or failure to comply with duty; actions by board of pardons and parole.

(d)(1) Who may petition. A person aggrieved or whose interests are threatened by any of the acts enumerated in this paragraph may petition the court for relief.

(d)(2) Grounds for relief. Appropriate relief may be granted: (A) where an inferior court, administrative agency, or officer exercising judicial functions has exceeded its jurisdiction or abused its discretion; (B) where an inferior court, administrative agency, corporation or person has failed to perform an act required by law as a duty of office, trust or station; (C) where an inferior court, administrative agency, corporation or person has refused the petitioner the use or enjoyment of a right or office to which the petitioner is entitled; or (D) where the Board of Pardons and Parole has exceeded its jurisdiction or failed to perform an act required by constitutional or statutory law.

(d)(3) Proceedings on the petition. On the filing of a petition, the court may require that notice be given to adverse parties before issuing a hearing order, or may issue a hearing order requiring the adverse party to appear at the hearing on the merits. The court may direct the inferior court, administrative agency, officer, corporation or other person named as respondent to deliver to the court a transcript or other record of the proceedings. The court may also grant temporary relief in accordance with the terms of Rule 65A.

(d)(4) Scope of review. Where the challenged proceedings are judicial in nature, the court's review shall not extend further than to determine whether the respondent has regularly pursued its authority.


Advisory Committee Notes

This rule represents a complete reorganization of the former rule. This rule also revises parts of the former rule dealing with habeas corpus and post-conviction remedies. The rule applies generally to proceedings that are necessitated by the absence of another plain, speedy and adequate remedy in the court. After the rule's introductory paragraph, each subsequent paragraph is intended to deal with a separate type of proceeding. Thus, subparagraph (b) deals with proceedings involving wrongful restraint on personal liberty other than those governed by Rule 65C; paragraph (c) deals with proceedings involving the wrongful use of public or corporate authority; and paragraph (d) deals with proceedings involving the wrongful use of judicial authority or the failure to exercise such authority. Paragraph (d) also deals with petitions challenging actions by the Board of Pardons and Parole and the failure of the Board to perform a required act. To the extent that the special procedures set forth in these paragraphs do not cover specific procedural issues that arise during a proceeding, the normal rules of civil procedure will apply.

This rule effectively eliminates the concept of the "writ" from extraordinary relief procedure. In the view of the advisory committee, the concept was used inconsistently and confusingly in the former rule, and there was disagreement among judges and lawyers as to what it meant in actual practice. The concept has been replaced with terms such as "hearing order" and "relief" that are more descriptive of the procedural reality.

Paragraph (b). This paragraph governs all petitions claiming that a person has been wrongfully restrained of personal liberty other than those specifically governed by paragraph Rule 65C. It replaces paragraph (f) of the former rule. Paragraph (b) endeavors to simplify the procedure in habeas corpus cases and provides for a means of summary dismissal of frivolous claims. Thus, if it is apparent to the court that the claim is "frivolous on its face", the court may issue an order dismissing the claim, which terminates the proceeding. Apart from this significant change from former practice, paragraph (b) is patterned after the former rule.

Paragraphs (c) and (d) replace paragraph (b) of the former rule. The committee's general purpose in drafting these paragraphs was to simplify and clarify the requirements of the preexisting paragraph.

Paragraph (c). Paragraph (c) replaces paragraph (b)(1) of the former rule. This paragraph deals generally with proceedings for the unlawful use of public office or corporate franchises. As a general matter, the attorney general may seek relief on grounds enumerated in the paragraph. Any other person, including a governmental officer or entity not required to be represented by the attorney general, may also seek relief under paragraph (c) if the person claims to be entitled to an office unlawfully held by another or if the attorney general fails to file a petition under paragraph (c) after receiving notice of the person's claim. In allowing appropriate governmental entities and officers to proceed under this paragraph, the rule eliminates a procedural barrier that previously prevented anyone other than the attorney general and "private" persons to seek relief. Although the rule removes the procedural barrier, it was not intended to modify the substantive rules that limit the authority or standing of any governmental entity or officer. Nor was the rule intended to modify the constitutional or statutory authority of the attorney general. Since paragraph (c) provides only a general outline of procedures to be used in such proceedings, litigants should look to the other rules of civil procedure for guidance on specific questions not covered by paragraph (c). In proceedings under this paragraph and paragraph (d), parties seeking temporary relief in advance of a hearing on the merits should comply with the requirements of Rule 65A.

Paragraph (d). This paragraph governs relatively unusual proceedings in which the normal rules of appellate procedure are inadequate to provide redress for an abuse by a court, administrative agency, or officer exercising judicial or administrative functions. This paragraph replaces subparagraph (2), (3) and (4) of paragraph (b) of the former rule. This paragraph allows the court wide discretion in the manner in which such proceedings are handled. Like the former rule, the scope of review under this paragraph is limited to determining whether the respondent has regularly pursued its authority.

1992 Revisions.

These revisions harmonize parallel provisions of the rule and address technical problems relating to venue and the content of memoranda and orders in habeas corpus and post-conviction proceedings.

Paragraph (b). Changes to this paragraph affect the venue requirements for one category of extraordinary relief petition. The general rule established in the paragraph is that petitions governed by paragraph (b) must be commenced in the district court in the county in which the commitment leading to confinement was issued. Challenges to parole violation proceedings, however, should be filed in the district court in the county in which the petitioner is located.

Paragraph (c). The changes to this paragraph enlarge the discretion of the court in dealing with those petitions for wrongful restraint that the paragraph governs. In dismissing claims that are frivolous on their face, the court is relieved of the responsibility to state findings of fact or conclusions of law. This change harmonizes paragraph (c) with the parallel requirements of paragraph (b)(7) of the rule. Other changes allow the court more discretion in ordering a hearing concerning unlawful restraints. The remaining changes in this paragraph clarify the contents of pleadings and memoranda filed with the court.

 

 

Rule 65C. Post-conviction relief.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2021

(a) Scope. This rule governs proceedings in all petitions for post-conviction relief filed under the Post-Conviction Remedies Act, Utah CodeTitle 78B, Chapter 9. The Act sets forth the manner and extent to which a person may challenge the legality of a criminal conviction and sentence after the conviction and sentence have been affirmed in a direct appeal under Article I, Section 12 of the Utah Constitution, or the time to file such an appeal has expired.

(b) Procedural defenses and merits review. Except as provided in paragraph (h), if the court comments on the merits of a post-conviction claim, it shall first clearly and expressly determine whether that claim is independently precluded under Section78B-9-106.

(c) Commencement and venue. The proceeding shall be commenced by filing a petition with the clerk of the district court in the county in which the judgment of conviction was entered. The petition should be filed on forms provided by the court. The court may order a change of venue on its own motion if the petition is filed in the wrong county. The court may order a change of venue on motion of a party for the convenience of the parties or witnesses.

(d) Contents of the petition. The petition shall set forth all claims that the petitioner has in relation to the legality of the conviction or sentence. The petition shall state:

(1) whether the petitioner is incarcerated and, if so, the place of incarceration;

(2) the name of the court in which the petitioner was convicted and sentenced and the dates of proceedings in which the conviction was entered, together with the court's case number for those proceedings, if known by the petitioner;

(3) in plain and concise terms, all of the facts that form the basis of the petitioner's claim to relief;

(4) whether the judgment of conviction, the sentence, or the commitment for violation of probation has been reviewed on appeal, and, if so, the number and title of the appellate proceeding, the issues raised on appeal, and the results of the appeal;

(5) whether the legality of the conviction or sentence has been adjudicated in any prior post-conviction or other civil proceeding, and, if so, the case number and title of those proceedings, the issues raised in the petition, and the results of the prior proceeding; and

(6) if the petitioner claims entitlement to relief due to newly discovered evidence, the reasons why the evidence could not have been discovered in time for the claim to be addressed in the trial, the appeal, or any previous post-conviction petition.

(e) Attachments to the petition. If available to the petitioner, the petitioner shall attach to the petition:

(1) affidavits, copies of records and other evidence in support of the allegations;

(2) a copy of or a citation to any opinion issued by an appellate court regarding the direct appeal of the petitioner's case;

(3) a copy of the pleadings filed by the petitioner in any prior post-conviction or other civil proceeding that adjudicated the legality of the conviction or sentence; and

(4) a copy of all relevant orders and memoranda of the court.

(f) Memorandum of authorities. The petitioner shall not set forth argument or citations or discuss authorities in the petition, but these may be set out in a separate memorandum, two copies of which shall be filed with the petition.

(g) Assignment. On the filing of the petition, the clerk shall promptly assign and deliver it to the judge who sentenced the petitioner. If the judge who sentenced the petitioner is not available, the clerk shall assign the case in the normal course.

(h)Summary dismissal of claims.

(1) The assigned judge shall review the petition, and, if it is apparent to the court that any claim has been adjudicated in a prior proceeding, or if any claim in the petition appears frivolous on its face, the court shall forthwith issue an order dismissing the claim, stating either that the claim has been adjudicated or that the claim is frivolous on its face. The order shall be sent by mail to the petitioner. Proceedings on the claim shall terminate with the entry of the order of dismissal. The order of dismissal need not recite findings of fact or conclusions of law.

(2) A claim is frivolous on its face when, based solely on the allegations contained in the pleadings and attachments, it appears that:

(A) the facts alleged do not support a claim for relief as a matter of law;

(B) the claim has no arguable basis in fact; or

(C) the claim challenges the sentence only and the sentence has expired prior to the filing of the petition.

(3) If a claim is not frivolous on its face but is deficient due to a pleading error or failure to comply with the requirements of this rule, the court shall return a copy of the petition with leave to amend within 21 days. The court may grant one additional 21-day period to amend for good cause shown.

(4) The court shall not review for summary dismissal the initial post-conviction petition in a case where the petitioner is sentenced to death.

(i) Service of petitions. If, on review of the petition, the court concludes that all or part of the petition should not be summarily dismissed, the court shall designate the portions of the petition that are not dismissed and direct the clerk to serve upon the respondent a copy of the petition, attachments, memorandum, and an electronic court record of the underlying criminal case being challenged, including all non-public documents. If an electronic appellate record of the underlying case has not already been created, the clerk will create the record.

(1) If the petition is a challenge to a felony conviction or sentence, the respondent is the state of Utah represented by the Attorney General. Service on the Attorney General shall be by mail at the following address:

Utah Attorney General’s Office

Criminal Appeals

Post-Conviction Section

160 East 300 South, 6th Floor

P.O. Box 140854

Salt Lake City, UT 84114-0854

(2) In all other cases, the respondent is the governmental entity that prosecuted the petitioner.

(j) Appointment of pro bono counsel. If any portion of the petition is not summarily dismissed, the court may, upon the request of an indigent petitioner, appoint counsel on a pro bono basis to represent the petitioner in the post-conviction court or on post-conviction appeal. In determining whether to appoint counsel the court shall consider whether the petition or the appeal contains factual allegations that will require an evidentiary hearing and whether the petition involves complicated issues of law or fact that require the assistance of counsel for proper adjudication.

(k) Answer or other response. Within 30 days after service of a copy of the petition upon the respondent, or within such other period of time as the court may allow, the respondent shall answer or otherwise respond to the portions of the petition that have not been dismissed and shall serve the answer or other response upon the petitioner in accordance with Rule 5(b). Within 30 days (plus time allowed for service by mail) after service of any motion to dismiss or for summary judgment, the petitioner may respond by memorandum to the motion. No further pleadings or amendments will be permitted unless ordered by the court.

(l) Hearings. After pleadings are closed, the court shall promptly set the proceeding for a hearing or otherwise dispose of the case. The court may also order a prehearing conference, but the conference shall not be set so as to delay unreasonably the hearing on the merits of the petition. At the prehearing conference, the court may:

(1) consider the formation and simplification of issues;

(2) require the parties to identify witnesses and documents; and

(3) require the parties to establish the admissibility of evidence expected to be presented at the evidentiary hearing.

(m) Presence of the petitioner at hearings. The petitioner shall be present at the prehearing conference if the petitioner is not represented by counsel. The prehearing conference may be conducted by means of telephone or video conferencing. The petitioner shall be present before the court at hearings on dispositive issues but need not otherwise be present in court during the proceeding. The court may conduct any hearing at the correctional facility where the petitioner is confined.

(n) Discovery; records.

(1) Discovery under Rules 26 through 37 shall be allowed by the court upon motion of a party and a determination that there is good cause to believe that discovery is necessary to provide a party with evidence that is likely to be admissible at an evidentiary hearing.

(2) The court may order either the petitioner or the respondent to obtain any relevant transcript or court records.

(3) All records in the criminal case under review, including the records in an appeal of that conviction, are deemed part of the trial court record in the petition for post-conviction relief. A record from the criminal case retains the security classification that it had in the criminal case.

(o) Orders; stay.

(1) If the court vacates the original conviction or sentence, it shall enter findings of fact and conclusions of law and an appropriate order. If the petitioner is serving a sentence for a felony conviction, the order shall be stayed for 7 days. Within the stay period, the respondent shall give written notice to the court and the petitioner that the respondent will pursue a new trial, pursue a new sentence, appeal the order, or take no action. Thereafter the stay of the order is governed by these rules and by the Rules of Appellate Procedure.

(2) If the respondent fails to provide notice or gives notice that no action will be taken, the stay shall expire and the court shall deliver forthwith to the custodian of the petitioner the order to release the petitioner.

(3) If the respondent gives notice that the petitioner will be retried or resentenced, the trial court may enter any supplementary orders as to arraignment, trial, sentencing, custody, bail, discharge, or other matters that may be necessary and proper.

(p) Costs. The court may assign the costs of the proceeding, as allowed under Rule 54(d), to any party as it deems appropriate. If the petitioner is indigent, the court may direct the costs to be paid by the governmental entity that prosecuted the petitioner. If the petitioner is in the custody of the Department of Corrections, Utah Code Title 78A, Chapter 2, Part 3 governs the manner and procedure by which the trial court shall determine the amount, if any, to charge for fees and costs.

(q) Appeal. Any final judgment or order entered upon the petition may be appealed to and reviewed by the Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court of Utah in accord with the statutes governing appeals to those courts.

 

 

Rule 66. Receivers.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2024

(a) Grounds for appointment. The court may appoint a receiver:

(1) in any action in which property is in danger of being lost, removed, damaged, or is insufficient to satisfy a judgment, order, or claim;

(2) to carry the judgment into effect, to dispose of property according to the judgment, and to preserve property during the pendency of an appeal;

(3) when a writ of execution has been returned unsatisfied or when the judgment debtor refuses to apply property in satisfaction of the judgment;

(4) when a corporation has been dissolved, is insolvent or in imminent danger of insolvency, or has forfeited its corporate rights; or

(5) in all other cases in which receivers have been appointed by courts of equity.

(b) Appointment of receiver. No party or attorney to the action nor any person who is not impartial and disinterested as to all the parties and the subject matter of the action may be appointed receiver without the written consent of all interested parties.

(c) The court may require security from a receiver in accordance with Rule 64.

(d) Oath. A receiver must swear or affirm to perform duties faithfully.

(e) Powers of receivers. A receiver has, under the direction of the court, power to bring and defend actions; to seize property; to collect, pay, and compromise debts; to invest funds; to make transfers; and, to take other action as the court may authorize.

(f) Payment of taxes before sale, transfer, or pledge of personal property. Before the receiver may sell, transfer, or pledge personal property, the receiver must pay applicable taxes and must file receipts showing payment of taxes. If there are insufficient assets to pay the taxes, the court may authorize the sale, transfer, or pledge of personal property with the proceeds to be used to pay taxes. Within 14 days after payment, the receiver must file receipts showing payment of taxes.

(g) Real property. Before a receiver is vested with real property, the receiver must record a certified copy of the appointment order in the office of the county recorder of the county in which the real property is located.

 

 

Rule 67. Deposit in court.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

When it is admitted by the pleadings, or shown upon the examination of a party, that he has in his possession or under his control any money or other thing capable of delivery, which, being the subject of litigation, is held by him as trustee for another party, or which belongs or is due to another party, the court may order the same, upon motion, to be deposited in court or delivered to such party upon such conditions as may be just, subject to the further direction of the court; provided that if money is paid into court under this rule it shall be deposited and withdrawn in accordance with Utah Code Section 78B-5-804 or any like statute.

 

 

Rule 68. Settlement offers.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2014

(a) Unless otherwise specified, an offer made under this rule is an offer to resolve all claims in the action between the parties to the date of the offer, including costs, interest and, if attorney fees are permitted by law or contract, attorney fees.

(b) If the adjusted award is not more favorable than the offer, the offeror is not liable for costs, prejudgment interest or attorney fees incurred by the offeree after the offer, and the offeree shall pay the offeror's costs incurred after the offer. The court may suspend the application of this rule to prevent manifest injustice.

(c) An offer made under this rule shall:

(c)(1) be in writing;

(c)(2) expressly refer to this rule;

(c)(3) be made more than 14 days before trial;

(c)(4) remain open for at least 14 days; and

(c)(5) be served on the offeree under Rule 5.

Acceptance of the offer shall be in writing and served on the offeror under Rule 5. Upon acceptance, either party may file the offer and acceptance with a proposed judgment under Rule 58A.

(d) "Adjusted award" means the amount awarded by the finder of fact and, unless excluded by the offer, the offeree's costs and interest incurred before the offer, and, if attorney fees are permitted by law or contract and not excluded by the offer, the offeree's reasonable attorney fees incurred before the offer. If the offeree's attorney fees are subject to a contingency fee agreement, the court shall determine a reasonable attorney fee for the period preceding the offer.


Advisory Committee Note

Under Section 78B-5-824 a party will not be awarded prejudgment interest on special damages in a Tier 1 action for personal injury or wrongful death arising on or after July 1, 2014 if:

(1) the party does not make a settlement offer;

(2) the settlement offer is tendered less than 60 days before trial; or

(3) the settlement offer is greater than or equal to one and one-third times the judgment awarded at trial.

Although the statute does not directly affect settlement offers made under Rule 68, parties should be aware of the limitation a settlement offer has on prejudgment interest in some cases.


 

 

Rule 69A. Seizure of property.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2024

Unless otherwise directed by the writ, the officer must seize property as follows:

(a) Debtor's preference. When there is more property than necessary to satisfy the amount due, the officer must seize such part of the property as the defendant may indicate. If the defendant does not indicate a preference, the officer must first seize personal property, and if sufficient personal property cannot be found, then the officer must seize real property.

(b) Real property. Real property must be seized by recording the writ and a description of the property with the county recorder and leaving the writ and description with an occupant of the property. If there is no occupant of the property, the officer must post the writ and description in a conspicuous place on the property. If another person claims an interest in the real property, the officer must serve the writ and description on the other person.

(c) Personal property.

(1) Farm products, as that term is defined in Utah Code Section 70A-9a-102, may be seized by filing the writ and description of the property with the central filing system established by Utah Code Section 70A-9a-320.

(2) Securities shall be seized as provided in Utah Code Section 70A-8-111.

(3) In the discretion of the officer, property of extraordinary size or bulk, property that would be costly to take into custody or to store, and property not capable of delivery may be seized by serving the writ and a description of the property on the person holding the property. The officer must request of the person holding the property an affidavit describing the nature, location, and estimated value of the property.

(4) Otherwise, personal property must be seized by serving the writ and a description of the property on the person holding the property and taking the property into custody.

 

 

Rule 69B. Sale of property; delivery of property.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2024

(a) Sale before judgment. The officer may sell the property before judgment if it is perishable or likely to decline speedily in value. The court may order the officer to sell the property before judgment if the court finds that the interest of the parties will be served by sale. The officer must keep safe the sale proceeds subject to further order of the court.

(b) Notice of sale. The officer must set the date, time, and place for sale and serve notice thereof on the defendant and on any third party named by the plaintiff or garnishee. Service must be not later than the initial publication of notice of the sale. The officer must publish notice of the date, time, and place of sale as follows:

(1) If the property is perishable or likely to decline speedily in value, the officer must post written notice of the date, time, and place of sale and a general description of the property to be sold (A) in the courthouse from which the writ was issued and (B) in at least three other public places in the county or city in which the sale is to take place. The officer must post the notice for such time as the officer determines is reasonable, considering the property’s character and condition.

(2) If the property is personal property, the officer must post written notice of the date, time, and place of sale and a general description of the property to be sold (A) in the courthouse from which the writ was issued and (B) in at least three other public places in the county or city in which the sale is to take place. The officer must post the notice for at least seven days and publish the notice at least one time not less than one day preceding the sale in a newspaper of general circulation, if there is one, in the county in which the sale is to take place.

(3) If the property is real property, the officer must post written notice of the date, time, and place of sale and a particular description of the property to be sold (A) on the property, (B) at the place of sale, (C) at the district courthouse of the county in which the real property is located, and (D) in at least three other public places in the county or city in which the real property is located. The officer must post the notice for at least 21 days and publish the notice at least once a week for three successive weeks immediately preceding the sale in a newspaper of general circulation, if there is one, in the county in which the real property is located.

(c) Postponement. If the officer finds sufficient cause, the officer may postpone the sale. The officer must declare the postponement at the time and place set for the sale. If the postponement is longer than 72 hours, the officer must give notice of the rescheduled sale in the same manner as the original notice of sale.

(d) Conduct of sale. All sales must be at auction to the highest bidder, Monday through Saturday, legal holidays excluded, between the hours of 9:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. at a place reasonably convenient to the public. Real property must be sold at the district courthouse of the county in which the property is located. The officer must sell only so much property as is necessary to satisfy the amount due. The officer must not purchase property or be interested in any purchase. Property capable of delivery must be within view of those who attend the sale. The property must be sold in such parcels as are likely to bring the highest price. Severable lots of real property must be sold separately. Real property claimed by a third party must be sold separately if requested by the third party. The defendant may direct the order in which the property is sold.

(e) Accounting. Upon request of the defendant, the plaintiff must deliver an accounting of the sale. The officer is entitled to recover the reasonable and necessary costs of seizing, transporting, storing, and selling the property. The officer must apply the property in the following order up to the amount due or the value of the property, whichever is less:

(1) pay the reasonable and necessary costs of seizing, transporting, storing, and selling the property;

(2) deliver to the plaintiff the remaining proceeds of the sale;

(3) deliver to the defendant the remaining property and proceeds of the sale.

(f) Purchaser refusing to pay. Every bid is an irrevocable offer. If a person refuses to pay the amount bid, the person is liable for the difference between the amount bid and the ultimate sale price. If a person refuses to pay the amount bid, the officer may:

(1) offer the property to the next highest bidder;

(2) renew bidding on the property; and

(3) reject any other bid of such person.

(g) Property capable of delivery. Upon payment of the amount bid, the officer must deliver to the purchaser of property capable of delivery the property and a certificate of sale stating that all right, title, and interest the defendant had in the property is transferred to the purchaser.

(h) Property not capable of delivery. Upon payment of the amount bid, the officer must deliver to the purchaser of property not capable of delivery a certificate of sale describing the property and stating that all right, title, and interest the defendant had in the property is transferred to the purchaser. The officer must serve a duplicate of the certificate on the person controlling the property.

(i) Real property. Upon payment of the amount bid, the officer must deliver to the purchaser of real property a certificate of sale for each parcel containing:

(1) a description of the real property;

(2) the price paid;

(3) a statement that all right, title, and interest of the defendant in the property is conveyed to the purchaser; and

(4) a statement whether the sale is subject to redemption.

The officer must record a duplicate of the certificate in the office of the county recorder.

(j) The officer must deliver the property as directed by the writ.

 

 

Rule 69C. Redemption of real property after sale.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2024

(a) Right of redemption. Real property may be redeemed unless the estate is less than a leasehold of a two-years' unexpired term, in which case the sale is absolute.

(b) Who may redeem. Real property subject to redemption may be redeemed by the defendant or by a creditor having a lien on the property junior to that on which the property was sold or by their successors in interest. If the defendant redeems, the effect of the sale is terminated and the defendant is restored to the defendant's estate. If the property is redeemed by a creditor, any other creditor having a right of redemption may redeem.

(c) How made. To redeem, the redemptioner shall pay the amount required to the purchaser and must serve on the purchaser:

(1) a certified copy of the judgment or lien under which the redemptioner claims the right to redeem;

(2) an assignment, properly acknowledged if necessary to establish the claim; and

(3) an affidavit showing the amount due on the judgment or lien.

(d) Time for redemption. The property may be redeemed within 180 days after the sale.

(e) Redemption price. The price to redeem is the sale price plus six percent. The price for a subsequent redemption is the redemption price plus three percent. If the purchaser or redemptioner records with the county recorder notice of the amounts paid for taxes, assessments, insurance, maintenance, repair, or any lien other than the lien on which the redemption was based, the price to redeem includes such amounts plus six percent for an initial redemption or three percent for a subsequent redemption. Failure to record notice of the amounts with the county recorder waives the right to claim such amounts.

(f) Dispute regarding price. If there is a dispute about the redemption price, the redemptioner must within 21 days of the redemption pay into court the amount necessary for redemption less the amount in dispute and file and serve upon the purchaser a petition setting forth the items to which the redemptioner objects and the grounds for the objection. The petition is deemed denied. The court may permit discovery. The court will conduct an evidentiary hearing and enter an order determining the redemption price. The redemptioner must pay to the clerk any additional amount within seven days after the court's order.

(g) Certificate of redemption. The purchaser must promptly execute and deliver to the redemptioner, or the redemptioner to a subsequent redemptioner, a certificate of redemption containing:

(1) a detailed description of the real property;

(2) the price paid;

(3) a statement that all right, title, and interest of the purchaser in the property is conveyed to the redemptioner; and

(4) if known, whether the sale is subject to redemption.

The redemptioner or subsequent redemptioner must record a duplicate of the certificate with the county recorder.

(h) Conveyance. The purchaser or last redemptioner is entitled to conveyance upon the expiration of the time permitted for redemption.

(i) Rents and profits, request for accounting, extension of time for redemption.

(1) Subject to a superior claim, the purchaser is entitled to the rents of the property or the value of the use and occupation of the property from the time of sale until redemption. Subject to a superior claim, a redemptioner is entitled to the rents of the property or the value of the use and occupation of the property from the time of redemption until a subsequent redemption. Rents and profits are a credit upon the redemption price.

(2) Upon written request served on the purchaser before the time for redemption expires, the purchaser must prepare and serve on the requester a written and verified account of rents and profits. The period for redemption is extended to seven days after the accounting is served. If the purchaser fails to serve the accounting within 30 days after the request, the redemptioner may, within 60 days after the request, bring an action to compel an accounting. The period for redemption is extended to 21 days after the court’s order.

(j) Remedies.

(1) For waste. A purchaser or redemptioner may file a motion requesting the court to restrain the commission of waste on the property. After the estate has become absolute, the purchaser or redemptioner may file an action to recover damages for waste.

(2) Failure to obtain property.

(A) A purchaser or redemptioner who fails to obtain the property or who is evicted from the property because the judgment against the defendant is reversed or discharged may file a motion for judgment against the plaintiff for the purchase price plus amounts paid for taxes, assessments, insurance, maintenance, and repair, plus interest.

(B) A purchaser or redemptioner who fails to obtain the property or who is evicted from the property because of an irregularity in the sale or because the property is exempt may file a motion for judgment against the plaintiff or the defendant for the purchase price plus amounts paid for taxes, assessments, insurance, maintenance, and repair, plus interest. If the court enters judgment against the plaintiff, the court will revive the plaintiff's judgment against defendant for the amount of the judgment against plaintiff.

(C) Interest on a judgment in favor of a purchaser or redemptioner is governed by Utah Code Section 15-1-4. Interest on a revived judgment in favor of the plaintiff against the defendant is at the rate of the original judgment. The effective date of a revived judgment in favor of plaintiff against defendant is the date of the original judgment except as to an intervening purchaser in good faith.

(k) Contribution and reimbursement. A defendant may claim contribution or reimbursement from other defendants by filing a motion.

 

 

Rule 70. Judgment for specific acts; vesting title.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

If a judgment directs a party to execute a conveyance of land or to deliver deeds or other documents or to perform any other specific act and the party fails to comply within the time specified, the court may direct the act to be done at the cost of the disobedient party by some other person appointed by the court and the act when so done has like effect as if done by the party. On application of the party entitled to performance and upon order of the court, the clerk shall issue a writ of attachment or sequestration against the property of the disobedient party to compel obedience to the judgment. The court may also in proper cases adjudge the party in contempt. If real or personal property is within the state, the court in lieu of directing a conveyance thereof may enter a judgment divesting the title of any party and vesting it in others and such judgment has the effect of a conveyance executed in due form of law. When any order or judgment is for the delivery of possession, the party in whose favor it is entered is entitled to a writ of execution or assistance upon application to the clerk.

 

 

Rule 71. Process in behalf of and against persons not parties.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

When an order is made in favor of a person who is not a party to the action, that person may enforce obedience to the order by the same process as a party. When obedience to an order may be lawfully enforced against a person who is not a party, that person is liable to the same process for enforcing obedience as a party.

 

 

Rule 72. Property bonds.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) A real property bond posted with the court shall:

(a)(1) be signed by all owners of record;

(a)(2) contain the complete legal description of the property and the property tax identification number;

(a)(3) be acknowledged before a notary public;

(a)(4) be accompanied by a copy of the document vesting title in the owners;

(a)(5) be accompanied by a copy of the property tax statement for the current or previous year;

(a)(6) be accompanied by a current title report, a current foreclosure report, or such other information as required by the court; and

(a)(7) be accompanied by a written statement from each lien holder stating:

(a)(7)(A) the current balance of the lien;

(a)(7)(B) the date the most recent payment was made;

(a)(7)(C) that the debt is not in default; and

(a)(7)(D) that the lien holder will notify the court if a default occurs or if a foreclosure process is commenced during the period the property bond is in effect.

(b) The bond is not effective until recorded with the county recorder of the county in which the property is located. Proof of recording shall be filed with the court.

(c) Upon exoneration of the bond, the property owner shall present a release of property bond to the court for approval.

 

 

Rule 73. Attorney fees.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2019

(a) Time in which to claim. Attorney fees must be claimed by filing a motion for attorney fees no later than 14 days after the judgment is entered, except as provided in paragraph (f) of this rule, or in accordance with Utah Code §75-3-718, and no objection to the fee has been made.

(b) Content of motion. The motion must:

(b)(1) specify the statute, rule, contract, judgment, or other basis entitling the party to the award;

(b)(2) disclose, if the court orders, the terms of any agreement about fees for the services for which the claim is made;

(b)(3) specify factors showing the reasonableness of the fees, if applicable;

(b)(4) specify the amount of attorney fees claimed and any amount previously awarded; and

(b)(5) disclose if the attorney fees are for services rendered to an assignee or a debt collector, the terms of any agreement for sharing the fee and a statement that the attorney will not share the fee in violation of Rule of Professional Conduct 5.4.

(c) Supporting affidavit. The motion must be supported by an affidavit or declaration that reasonably describes the time spent and work performed, including for each item of work the name, position (such as attorney, paralegal, administrative assistant, etc.) and hourly rate of the persons who performed the work, and establishes that the claimed fee is reasonable.

(d) Liability for fees. The court may decide issues of liability for fees before receiving submissions on the value of services. If the court has established liability for fees, the party claiming them may file an affidavit and a proposed order. The court will enter an order for the claimed amount unless another party objects within 7 days after the affidavit and proposed order are filed.

(e) Fees claimed in complaint. If a party claims attorney fees under paragraph (f), the complaint must state the basis for attorney fees, cite the law or attach a copy of the contract authorizing the award, and state that the attorney will not share the fee in violation of Rule of Professional Conduct 5.4.

(f) Fees. Attorney fees awarded under this rule may be augmented upon submission of a motion and supporting affidavit meeting the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) within a reasonable time after the fees were incurred, except as provided in paragraphs (f)(1), (f)(2) and (f)(3), and only where the augmented fees sought exceed those already awarded.

(f)(1) Fees upon entry of uncontested judgment. When a party seeks a judgment, the responding party does not contest entry of judgment by presenting at a hearing either evidence or argument, and the party seeking the judgment has complied with paragraph (e) of this rule, the request for judgment may include a request for attorney fees, and the clerk or the court shall allow any amount requested up to $350.00 for such attorney fees without a supporting affidavit.

(f)(2) Fees upon entry of judgment after contested proceeding. When a party seeks a judgment, the responding party contests the judgment by presenting at a hearing either evidence or argument, and the party seeking the judgment has established its right to attorney fees, the request for judgment may include a request for attorney fees, and the clerk or the court shall allow any amount requested up to $750 for such attorney fees without a supporting affidavit.

(f)(3) Post Judgment Collections. When a party has established its entitlement to attorney fees under any paragraph of this rule, and subsequently:

(f)(3)(A) applies for any writ pursuant to Rules 6464A64B64C64D, or 64E; or

(f)(3)(B) files a motion pursuant to Rules 64(c)(2) or 58C or pursuant to Utah Code§ 35A-4-314, the party may request as part of its application for a writ or its motion that the party’s judgment be augmented according to the following schedule, and the clerk or the court shall allow such augmented attorney fees request without a supporting affidavit if it approves the writ or motion:

Action

Attorney Fees Allowed

Application for any writ under Rules 64, 64A, 64B, 64C, or 64E, and first application for a writ under Rule 64D
to any particular garnishee;

$75.00

Any subsequent application for a writ under Rule 64D
to the same garnishee;

$25.00

Any motion filed with the court under Rule 64(c)(2),
Utah Code§ 35A-4-314, or Rule 58C;

$75.00

Any subsequent motion under Rule 64(c)(2),
Utah Code§ 35A-4-314, or Rule 58C
filed within 6 months of the previous motion.

$25.00

(f)(4) Fees in excess of the schedule. If a party seeks attorney fees in excess of the amounts set forth in paragraphs (f)(1), (f)(2), or (f)(3), the party shall comply with paragraphs (a) through (c) of this rule.

(f)(5) Objections. Nothing in this paragraph shall be deemed to eliminate any right a party may have to object to any claimed attorney fees.


Advisory Committee Notes:

2018 Amendments

An overwhelming number of cases filed in the courts, especially debt collection cases, result in the entry of an uncontested judgment. The work required in most cases to obtain an uncontested judgment does not typically depend on the amount at issue. As such, the prior schedule of fees based on the amount of damages has been eliminated, and instead replaced by a single fee upon entry of an uncontested judgment that is intended to approximate the work required in the typical case. A second amount is provided where the case is contested and fees are allowed, again in an effort to estimate the typical cost of litigating such cases. Where additional work is required to collect on the judgment, the revised rule provides a default amount for writs and certain motions and eliminates the “considerable additional efforts” limitation of the prior rule. It also recognizes that defendants often change jobs, and thus provides for such default amounts to vary depending on whether a new garnishee is required to collect on the outstanding amount of the judgment. Thus, the amended rule attempts to match the scheduled amounts to the work required of attorneys, rather than tying the scheduled amounts solely to the damages claimed. But the rule remains flexible so that when attorney fees exceed the scheduled amounts, a party remains free to file an affidavit requesting appropriate fees in accordance with the rule.

2019 Amendments

Rule 73 has been amended in response to McQuarrie v. McQuarrie, 2017 UT App 209, and Chaparro v. Torero, 2018 UT App 181, to clarify that the rule applies to all motions for attorney fees, not just post-judgment motions.

Prior rule amendments and committee discussions

For more information on prior rule amendments, please visit https://legacy.utcourts.gov/utc/rules-approved/. Prior versions of the court rules and pre-2004 court rule amendments are also available at the State Law Library: https://legacy.utcourts.gov/lawlibrary/.

For discussion materials on rule amendments, please visit the web blog of the Advisory Committee on the Utah Rules of Civil Procedure at https://legacy.utcourts.gov/utc/civproc/.

 

 

Rule 74. Withdrawal of counsel.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2014

(a) Notice of withdrawal. An attorney may withdraw from the case by filing with the court and serving on all parties a notice of withdrawal. The notice of withdrawal shall include the address of the attorney’s client and a statement that no motion is pending and no hearing or trial has been set. If a motion is pending or a hearing or trial has been set, an attorney may not withdraw except upon motion and order of the court. The motion to withdraw shall describe the nature of any pending motion and the date and purpose of any scheduled hearing or trial.

(b) Withdrawal of limited appearance. An attorney who has entered a limited appearance under Rule 75 shall withdraw from the case upon the conclusion of the purpose or proceeding identified in the Notice of Limited Appearance:

(b)(1) by filing and serving a notice of withdrawal; or

(b)(2) if permitted by the judge, by orally announcing the withdrawal on the record in a proceeding.

An attorney who seeks to withdraw before the conclusion of the purpose or proceeding shall proceed under subdivision (a).

(c) Notice to Appear or Appoint Counsel. If an attorney withdraws other than under subdivision (b), dies, is suspended from the practice of law, is disbarred, or is removed from the case by the court, the opposing party shall serve a Notice to Appear or Appoint Counsel on the unrepresented party, informing the party of the responsibility to appear personally or appoint counsel. A copy of the Notice to Appear or Appoint Counsel must be filed with the court. No further proceedings shall be held in the case until 21 days after filing the Notice to Appear or Appoint Counsel unless the unrepresented party waives the time requirement or unless otherwise ordered by the court.

(d) Substitution of counsel. An attorney may replace the counsel of record by filing and serving a notice of substitution of counsel signed by former counsel, new counsel and the client. Court approval is not required if new counsel certifies in the notice of substitution that counsel will comply with the existing hearing schedule and deadlines.

 

 

Rule 75. Limited appearance.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2014

(a) Purposes. An attorney acting pursuant to an agreement with a party for limited representation that complies with the Utah Rules of Professional Conduct may enter an appearance limited to one or more of the following purposes:

(a)(1) filing a pleading or other paper;

(a)(2) acting as counsel for a specific motion;

(a)(3) acting as counsel for a specific discovery procedure;

(a)(4) acting as counsel for a specific hearing, including a trial, pretrial conference, or an alternative dispute resolution proceeding; or

(a)(5) any other purpose with leave of the court.

(b) Notice. Before commencement of the limited appearance the attorney shall file a Notice of Limited Appearance signed by the attorney and the party or, if permitted by the judge, orally announce the limited appearance on the record in a proceeding. The Notice shall specifically describe the purpose and scope of the appearance and state that the party remains responsible for all matters not specifically described in the Notice. The clerk shall enter on the docket the attorney’s name and a brief statement of the limited appearance. The Notice of Limited Appearance and all actions taken pursuant to it are subject to Rule 11.

(c) Motion to clarify. Any party may move to clarify the description of the purpose and scope of the limited appearance.

(d) Party remains responsible. A party on whose behalf an attorney enters a limited appearance remains responsible for all matters not specifically described in the Notice.

 

 

Rule 76. Notice of contact information change.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2022

An attorney and unrepresented party must promptly notify the court in writing of any change in that person’s address, e-mail address, and phone number for purposes of receiving service and communications from the court and other parties. The same notice must be provided to other parties, unless a protective order, stalking injunction, or other court order provides otherwise.


 

 

Rule 77. District courts and clerks.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) District courts always open. The district courts shall be deemed always open for the purpose of filing any pleading or other proper paper, of issuing and returning mesne and final process, and of making and directing all interlocutory motions, orders, and rules.

(b) Trials and hearings; orders in chambers. All trials upon the merits shall be conducted in open court and so far as convenient in a regular courtroom. All other acts or proceedings may be done or conducted by a judge in chambers without the attendance of the clerk or other court officials and at any place within the state, either within or without the district; but no hearing, other than one ex parte, shall be conducted outside the county wherein the matter is pending without the consent of all the parties to the action affected thereby.

(c) Clerk's office and orders by clerk. The clerk's office with the clerk or a deputy in attendance shall be open during business hours on all days except Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. All motions and applications in the clerk's office for issuing mesne process, for issuing final process to enforce and execute judgments, for entering defaults or judgments by default, and for other proceedings which do not require allowance or order of the court are grantable of course by the clerk; but such action may be suspended or altered or rescinded by the court upon cause shown.


Advisory Committee Notes

Subdivision (d), deleted by the 1999 amendment, prohibited the sheriff, constable and clerk from charging a fee for a certified copy when the copy was furnished by the person requesting the copy. The subdivision was deleted on two grounds:

(1) The Supreme Court has no authority to regulate fees charged by a sheriff or constable.

(2) In order to certify a document as a true copy of an original, the clerk must either copy the original or compare, word-by-word, the copy to the original. The latter is much more difficult, time consuming and costly than the former, yet it was in the latter case that the fee was waived.

 

 

Rule 81. Applicability of rules in general.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) Special statutory proceedings. These rules shall apply to all special statutory proceedings, except insofar as such rules are by their nature clearly inapplicable. Where a statute provides for procedure by reference to any part of the former Code of Civil Procedure, such procedure shall be in accordance with these rules.

(b) Probate and guardianship. These rules shall not apply to proceedings in uncontested probate and guardianship matters, but shall apply to all proceedings subsequent to the joinder of issue therein, including the enforcement of any judgment or order entered.

(c) Application to small claims. These rules shall not apply to small claims proceedings except as expressly incorporated in the Small Claims Rules.

(d) On appeal from or review of a ruling or order of an administrative board or agency. These rules shall apply to the practice and procedure in appealing from or obtaining a review of any order, ruling or other action of an administrative board or agency, except insofar as the specific statutory procedure in connection with any such appeal or review is in conflict or inconsistent with these rules.

(e) Application in criminal proceedings. These rules of procedure shall also govern in any aspect of criminal proceedings where there is no other applicable statute or rule, provided, that any rule so applied does not conflict with any statutory or constitutional requirement.

 

 

Rule 82. Jurisdiction and venue unaffected.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

These rules shall not be construed to extend or limit the jurisdiction of the courts of this state or the venue of actions therein.

 

 

Rule 83. Vexatious litigants.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2024

(a) Definitions.

(1) The court may find a person to be a "vexatious litigant" if the person, with or without legal representation, including an attorney acting pro se, does any of the following:

(A) In the immediately preceding seven years, the person has filed at least five claims for relief, other than small claims actions, that have been finally determined against the person, and the person does not have within that time at least two claims, other than small claims actions, that have been finally determined in that person’s favor.

(B) After a claim for relief or an issue of fact or law in the claim has been finally determined, the person two or more additional times re-litigates or attempts to re-litigate the claim, the issue of fact or law, or the validity of the determination against the same party in whose favor the claim or issue was determined.

(C) In any action, the person three or more times does any one or any combination of the following:

(i) files unmeritorious pleadings or other papers,

(ii) files pleadings or other papers that contain redundant, immaterial, impertinent or scandalous matter,

(iii) conducts unnecessary discovery or discovery that is not proportional to what is at stake in the litigation, or

(iv) engages in tactics that are frivolous or solely for the purpose of harassment or delay.

(D) The person purports to represent or to use the procedures of a court other than a court of the United States, a court created by the Constitution of the United States or by Congress under the authority of the Constitution of the United States, a tribal court recognized by the United States, a court created by a state or territory of the United States, or a court created by a foreign nation recognized by the United States.

(2) “Claim” and “claim for relief” mean a petition, complaint, counterclaim, cross claim or third-party complaint.

(b) Vexatious litigant orders. The court may, on its own motion or on the motion of any party, after notice and an opportunity to be heard, enter an order requiring a vexatious litigant to:

(1) furnish security to assure payment of the moving party’s reasonable expenses, costs and, if authorized, attorney fees incurred in a pending action;

(2) obtain legal counsel before proceeding in a pending action;

(3) obtain legal counsel before filing any future claim for relief;

(4) abide by a prefiling order requiring the vexatious litigant to obtain the court’s permission before filing any paper, pleading, or motion, in a pending action, except that the court may not require a vexatious litigant to obtain the court’s permission before filing a notice of or petition for permission to appeal;

(5) abide by a prefiling order requiring the vexatious litigant to obtain the court’s permission before filing any future claim for relief in any court; or

(6) take any other action reasonably necessary to curb the vexatious litigant’s abusive conduct.

(c) Necessary findings and security.

(1) Before entering an order under subparagraph (b), the court must find by clear and convincing evidence that:

(A) the party subject to the order is a vexatious litigant; and

(B) there is no reasonable probability that the vexatious litigant will prevail on the claim.

(2) A preliminary finding that there is no reasonable probability that the vexatious litigant will prevail is not a decision on the ultimate merits of the vexatious litigant’s claim.

(3) The court shall identify the amount of the security and the time within which it is to be furnished. If the security is not furnished as ordered, the court shall dismiss the vexatious litigant’s claim with prejudice.

(d) Prefiling orders in a pending action.

(1) If a vexatious litigant is subject to a prefiling order in a pending action requiring the court’s permission to file any paper, pleading, or motion, the vexatious litigant shall submit any proposed paper, pleading, or motion, except for a notice of or petition for permission to appeal, to the judge assigned to the case and must:

(A) demonstrate that the paper, pleading, or motion is based on a good faith dispute of the facts;

(B) demonstrate that the paper, pleading, or motion is warranted under existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of existing law;

(C) include an oath, affirmation or declaration under criminal penalty that the proposed paper, pleading or motion is not filed for the purpose of harassment or delay and contains no redundant, immaterial, impertinent or scandalous matter;

(2) A prefiling order in a pending action shall be effective until a final determination of the action on appeal, unless otherwise ordered by the court.

(3) After a prefiling order has been effective in a pending action for one year, the person subject to the prefiling order may move to have the order vacated. The motion shall be decided by the judge to whom the pending action is assigned. In granting the motion, the judge may impose any other vexatious litigant orders permitted in paragraph (b).

(4) All papers, pleadings, and motions filed by a vexatious litigant subject to a prefiling order under this paragraph (d) shall include a judicial order authorizing the filing and any required security. If the order or security is not included, the clerk or court shall reject the paper, pleading, or motion.

(e) Prefiling orders as to future claims.

(1) A vexatious litigant subject to a prefiling order restricting the filing of future claims shall submit an application seeking an order before filing. The presiding judge of the judicial district in which the claim is to be filed shall decide the application. The presiding judge may consult with the judge who entered the vexatious litigant order in deciding the application. In granting an application, the presiding judge may impose in the pending action any of the vexatious litigant orders permitted under paragraph (b).

(2) To obtain an order under paragraph (e)(1), the vexatious litigant’s application must:

(A) demonstrate that the claim is based on a good faith dispute of the facts;

(B) demonstrate that the claim is warranted under existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of existing law;

(C) include an oath, affirmation, or declaration under criminal penalty that the proposed claim is not filed for the purpose of harassment or delay and contains no redundant, immaterial, impertinent or scandalous matter;

(D) include a copy of the proposed petition, complaint, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third party complaint; and

(E) include the court name and case number of all claims that the applicant has filed against each party within the preceding seven years and the disposition of each claim.

(3) A prefiling order limiting the filing of future claims is effective indefinitely unless the court orders a shorter period.

(4) After five years a person subject to a pre-filing order limiting the filing of future claims may file a motion to vacate the order. The motion shall be filed in the same judicial district from which the order entered and be decided by the presiding judge of that district.

(5) A claim filed by a vexatious litigant subject to a prefiling order under this paragraph (e) shall include an order authorizing the filing and any required security. If the order or security is not included, the clerk of court shall reject the filing.

(f) Notice of vexatious litigant orders.

(1) The clerks of court shall notify the Administrative Office of the Courts that a pre-filing order has been entered or vacated.

(2) The Administrative Office of the Courts shall disseminate to the clerks of court a list of vexatious litigants subject to a prefiling order.

(g) Statute of limitations or time for filing tolled. Any applicable statute of limitations or time in which the person is required to take any action is tolled until 7 days after notice of the decision on the motion or application for authorization to file.

(h) Contempt sanctions. Disobedience by a vexatious litigant of a pre-filing order may be punished as contempt of court.

(i) Other authority. This rule does not affect the authority of the court under other statutes and rules or the inherent authority of the court.

(j) Applicability of vexatious litigant order to other courts. After a court has issued a vexatious litigant order, any other court may rely upon that court’s findings and order its own restrictions against the litigant as provided in paragraph (b).

 

 

Rule 85. Title.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

These rules may be known and cited as the Utah Rules of Civil Procedure, or abbreviated U.R.C.P.

 

 

Rule 86. Licensed paralegal practitioners.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 12/19/2019

(a) Application of the Rules of Civil Procedure to licensed paralegal practitioners. To the extent consistent with their limited license, licensed paralegal practitioners must be treated in the same manner as attorneys for purposes of interpreting and implementing these rules. If a rule permits or requires an attorney to sign or file a document, a licensed paralegal practitioner may do so only if there is an applicable court-approved form available and the practice is consistent with the scope of the licensed paralegal practitioner’s license.

(b) Terms “attorney” and “counsel.”Throughout these rules, where the terms “attorney,” “lawyer,” and “counsel” are used, they refer to legal professionals. Legal professionals include licensed paralegal practitioners in the practice areas for which licensed paralegal practitioners are authorized to practice. Those practice areas are set forth in Utah Special Practice Rule 14-802 unless specifically carved out in this rule.

(c) Disclosures under Rules 26, 26.1, and 26.3. Licensed paralegal practitioners are permitted to prepare and serve initial, supplemental, and pretrial disclosures under Rules 2626.1, and 26.3.

(d) Licensed paralegal practitioner fees. Where these rules refer to attorney fees, they also mean licensed paralegal practitioner fees. Under Rule 73, licensed paralegal practitioners may recover fees with a supporting affidavit. Rule 73(f)(1)-(3) does not apply to licensed paralegal practitioners.

(e) Appearances.

(e)(1) Under Rule 75, a licensed paralegal practitioner whose agreement with a party is limited to the preparation, but not the filing, of a pleading or other paper is not required to enter an appearance.

(e)(2)A licensed paralegal practitioner who has entered a general appearance is obligated to inform the client of any papers filed, regardless of whether the paper falls within the scope of the licensed paralegal practitioner’s representation.

 

 

Rule 100. Coordination of cases pending in district court and juvenile court.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2019

(a) Notice to the court. In a case in which child custody, child support, or parent time is an issue, all parties have a continuing duty to notify the court:

(a)(1) of a case in which a party or the party's child is a party to or the subject of a petition or order involving child support, parent time, or child custody, including minor guardianship, adoption, or any similar child custody case;

(a)(2) of a criminal or delinquency case in which a party or the party's child is a defendant or respondent;

(a)(3) of a protective order case involving a party regardless whether a child of the party is involved.

The notice shall be filed with a party's initial pleading or as soon as practicable after the party becomes aware of the other case. The notice shall include the case caption, file number, and name of the judge or commissioner in the other case.

(b) Communication among judges and commissioners. The judge or commissioner assigned to a case in which child support, parent time, or child custody is an issue shall communicate and consult with any other judge or commissioner assigned to any other pending case involving the same issues and the same parties or their children. The objective of the communication is to consider the feasibility of consolidating the cases before one judge or commissioner or of coordinating hearings and orders.

(c) Participation of parties. The judges and commissioners may allow the parties to participate in the communication. If the parties have not participated in the communication, the parties shall be given notice and the opportunity to present facts and arguments before a decision to consolidate the cases.

(d) Consolidation of cases.

(d)(1) The court may consolidate cases within a county under Rule 42.

(d)(2) The court may transfer a case to the court of another county with venue or to the court of any county in accordance with Utah Code Section 78B-3-309.

(d)(3) If the district court and juvenile court have concurrent jurisdiction over cases, either court may transfer a case to the other court upon the agreement of the judges or commissioners assigned to the cases.

(e) Judicial reassignment. A judge may hear and determine a case in another court or district upon assignment in accordance with CJA Rule 3-108(3).

 

 

Rule 100A. Case Management of Domestic Relations Actions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2023

(a) Case management tracks. Except those initiated by the Office of Recovery Services,all domestic relations actions, as defined in Rule 26.1, will be set for a case management conference before the court, or a case manager assigned by the court, after an answer to the action is filed. At the case management conference, the court or a case manager assigned by the court must determine into which of the following tracks the case will be placed:

(1) Track 1: Standard Track. This category includes all cases that do not require expert witnesses or complex discovery. The court will certify a Track 1 case directly for trial. If the parties have not yet mediated, the court will order the parties to participate in good faith mediation before the trial takes place.

(2) Track 2: Complex Discovery Track. This category includes cases with complex issues that require extraordinary discovery, such as valuation of a business. For a Track 2 case, at the case management conference the court will set a discovery schedule with input from the parties and schedule the case for a pretrial hearing.

(3) Track 3: Significant Custody Dispute Track. This category includes cases with significant custody disputes, including custody disputes involving allegations of child abuse or domestic violence. For a Track 3 case, at the case management conference the court and parties will address: 1) whether a custody evaluation is necessary, and, if so, the form of the evaluation and appointment considerations; and 2) whether appointment of a private guardian ad litem is necessary, and if so, the scope of the appointment and apportionment of costs. The court will prepare and issue any resulting orders appointing a custody evaluator or guardian ad litem and schedule the case for either a pretrial hearing or a custody evaluation settlement conference.

(b) The court may set additional hearings as necessary under Rules 16 or 101. Nothing in this rule prohibits a court from assigning a case to more than one track, at the court’s discretion, or otherwise managing a case differently from the above guidelines for good cause.

 

 

Rule 101. Motion practice before court commissioners.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/1/2021

(a) Written motion required. An application to a court commissioner for an order must be by motion which, unless made during a hearing, must be made in accordance with this rule.

(1) A motion must be in writing and state succinctly and with particularity the relief sought and the grounds for the relief sought. Any evidence necessary to support the moving party's position must be presented by way of one or more affidavits or declarations or other admissible evidence. The motion may also include a supporting memorandum.

(2)All motions must provide the bilingual Notice to Responding Party approved by the Judicial Council.

(3) Each motion to a court commissioner must include the following caution language at the top right corner of the first page, in bold type: This motion will be decided by the court commissioner at an upcoming hearing. If you do not appear at the hearing, the Court might make a decision against you without your input. In addition, you may file a written response at least 14 days before the hearing.

(4) Failure to provide the bilingual Notice to Responding Party or to include the caution language may provide the non-moving party with a basis under Rule 60(b) for excusable neglect to set aside any resulting order or judgment. 

(b) Time to file and serve. The moving party must file the motion and any supporting papers with the clerk of the court and obtain a hearing date and time. The moving party must serve the responding party with the motion and supporting papers, together with notice of the hearing at least 28 days before the hearing. If service is more than 90 days after the date of entry of the most recent appealable order, service may not be made through counsel.

(c) Response. Any other party may file a response, consisting of any responsive memorandum, affidavit(s) or declaration(s). The response must be filed and served on the moving party at least 14 days before the hearing.

(d) Reply. The moving party may file a reply, consisting of any reply memorandum, affidavit(s) or declaration(s). The reply must be filed and served on the responding party at least 7 days before the hearing. The contents of the reply must be limited to rebuttal of new matters raised in the response to the motion.

(e) Counter motion. Responding to a motion is not sufficient to grant relief to the responding party. A responding party may request affirmative relief by way of a counter motion. A counter motion need not be limited to the subject matter of the original motion. All of the provisions of this rule apply to counter motions except that a counter motion must be filed and served with the response. Any response to the counter motion must be filed and served no later than the reply to the motion. Any reply to the response to the counter motion must be filed and served at least 3 business days before the hearing. The reply must be served in a manner that will cause the reply to be actually received by the party responding to the counter motion (i.e. hand-delivery, fax or other electronic delivery as allowed by rule or agreed by the parties) at least 3 business days before the hearing. A separate notice of hearing on counter motions is not required.

(f) Necessary documentation. Motions and responses regarding temporary orders concerning alimony, child support, division of debts, possession or disposition of assets, or litigation expenses, must be accompanied by verified financial declarations with documentary income verification attached as exhibits, unless financial declarations and documentation are already in the court's file and remain current. Attachments for motions and responses regarding child support and child custody must also include a child support worksheet.

(g) No other papers. No moving or responding papers other than those specified in this rule are permitted.

(h) Exhibits; objection to failure to attach.

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (h)(3) of this rule, any documents such as tax returns, bank statements, receipts, photographs, correspondence, calendars, medical records, forms, or photographs must be supplied to the court as exhibits to one or more affidavits (as appropriate) establishing the necessary foundational requirements. Copies of court papers such as decrees, orders, minute entries, motions, or affidavits, already in the court's case file, may not be filed as exhibits. Court papers from cases other than that before the court, such as protective orders, prior divorce decrees, criminal orders, information or dockets, and juvenile court orders (to the extent the law does not prohibit their filing), may be submitted as exhibits.

(2) If papers or exhibits referred to in a motion or necessary to support the moving party’s position are not served with the motion, the responding party may file and serve an objection to the defect with the response. If papers or exhibits referred to in the response or necessary to support the responding party’s position are not served with the response, the moving party may file and serve an objection to the defect with the reply. The defect must be cured within 2 business days after notice of the defect or at least 3 business days before the hearing, whichever is earlier.

(3) Voluminous exhibits which cannot conveniently be examined in court may not be filed as exhibits, but the contents of such documents may be presented in the form of a summary, chart or calculation under Rule 1006 of the Utah Rules of Evidence. Unless they have been previously supplied through discovery or otherwise and are readily identifiable, copies of any such voluminous documents must be supplied to the other parties at the time of the filing of the summary, chart or calculation. The originals or duplicates of the documents must be available at the hearing for examination by the parties and the commissioner. Collections of documents, such as bank statements, checks, receipts, medical records, photographs, e-mails, calendars and journal entries that collectively exceed ten pages in length must be presented in summary form. Individual documents with specific legal significance, such as tax returns, appraisals, financial statements and reports prepared by an accountant, wills, trust documents, contracts, or settlement agreements must be submitted in their entirety.

(i) Length. Initial and responding memoranda may not exceed 10 pages of argument without leave of the court. Reply memoranda may not exceed 5 pages of argument without leave of the court. The total number of pages submitted to the court by each party may not exceed 25 pages, including affidavits, attachments and summaries, but excluding financial declarations and income verification. The court commissioner may permit the party to file an over-length memorandum upon ex parte application and showing of good cause.

(j) Late filings; sanctions. If a party files or serves papers beyond the time required in this rule, the court commissioner may hold or continue the hearing, reject the papers, impose costs and attorney fees caused by the failure and by the continuance, and impose other sanctions as appropriate.

(k) Limit on order to show cause. An application to the court for an order to show cause may be made only for enforcement of an existing order or for sanctions for violating an existing order. An application for an order to show cause must be supported by affidavit or other evidence sufficient to show cause to believe a party has violated a court order.

(l) Hearings.

(1) The court commissioner may not hold a hearing on a motion for temporary orders before the deadline for an appearance by the respondent under Rule 12.

(2) Unless the court commissioner specifically requires otherwise, when the statement of a person is set forth in an affidavit, declaration or other document accepted by the commissioner, that person need not be present at the hearing. The statements of any person not set forth in an affidavit, declaration or other acceptable document may not be presented by proffer unless the person is present at the hearing and the commissioner finds that fairness requires its admission.

(m) Motions to judge. The following motions must be to the judge to whom the case is assigned: motion for alternative service; motion to waive 30-day waiting period; motion to waive divorce education class; motion for leave to withdraw after a case has been certified as ready for trial; and motions in limine. A court may provide that other motions be considered by the judge.

(n) Objection to court commissioner's recommendation. A recommendation of a court commissioner is the order of the court until modified by the court. A party may object to the recommendation by filing an objection under Rule 108.

 

 

Rule 102. Motion and order for payment of costs and fees.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) In an action under Utah Code Section 30-3-3(1), either party may move the court for an order requiring the other party to provide costs, attorney fees, and witness fees, including expert witness fees, to enable the moving party to prosecute or defend the action. The motion shall be accompanied by an affidavit setting forth the factual basis for the motion and the amount requested. The motion may include a request for costs or fees incurred:

(a)(1) prior to the commencement of the action;

(a)(2) during the action; or

(a)(3) after entry of judgment for the costs of enforcement of the judgment.

(b) The court may grant the motion if the court finds that:

(b)(1) the moving party lacks the financial resources to pay the costs and fees;

(b)(2) the non moving party has the financial resources to pay the costs and fees;

(b)(3) the costs and fees are necessary for the proper prosecution or defense of the action; and

(b)(4) the amount of the costs and fees are reasonable.

(c) The court may deny the motion or award limited payment of costs and fees if the court finds that one or more of the grounds in paragraph (b) is missing or enters in the record the reason for denial of the motion.

(d) The order shall specify the costs and fees to be paid within 30 days of entry of the order or the court shall enter findings of fact that a delay in payment will not create an undue hardship to the moving party and will not impair the ability of the moving party to prosecute or defend the action. The order shall specify the amount to be paid. The court may order the amount to be paid in a lump sum or in periodic payments. The court may order the fees to be paid to the moving party or to the provider of the services for which the fees are awarded.

 

 

Rule 104. Divorce decree upon affidavit.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2021

A party in a divorce case may apply for entry of a decree without a hearing in cases in which the other party fails to make a timely appearance after service of process or other appropriate notice, waives notice, stipulates to the withdrawal of the answer, or stipulates to the entry of the decree or entry of default. An affidavit in support of the decree must accompany the application. The affidavit must contain evidence sufficient to support necessary findings of fact and a final judgment.

 

 

Rule 105. Shortening 30 day waiting period in divorce actions.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 5/8/2018

A motion for a hearing less than 30 days from the date the petition was filed shall be accompanied by an affidavit setting forth the date on which the petition for divorce was filed and the facts constituting extraordinary circumstances.

Effective May 8, 2018 pursuant to CJA Rule 11-105(5)

 

 

Rule 106. Modification of final domestic relations order.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2021

(a) Commencement; service; answer.Except as provided in Utah Code Section 30-3-37, proceedings to modify a divorce decree or other final domestic relations order must be commenced by filing a petition to modify. Service of the petition, or motion under Section 30-3-37, and summons upon the other party must be in accordance with Rule 4. The responding party must serve the answer within the time permitted by Rule 12.

(b) Temporary orders.

(1) The judgment, order or decree sought to be modified remains in effect during the pendency of the petition. The court may make the modification retroactive to the date on which the petition was served. During the pendency of a petition to modify, the court:

(A) may order a temporary modification of child support as part of a temporary modification of custody or parent-time; and

(B) may order a temporary modification of custody or parent-time to address an immediate and irreparable harm or to ratify changes made by the parties, provided that the modification serves the best interests of the child.

(2) Nothing in this rule limits the court’s authority to enter temporary orders under Utah Code Section 30-3-3.

 

 

Rule 107. Decree of adoption; Petition to open adoption records.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
 

(a) An adoptive parent or adult adoptee may obtain a certified copy of the adoption decree upon request and presentation of positive identification.

(b) A petition to open the court's adoption records shall identify the type of information sought and shall state good cause for access, and, in the following circumstances, shall provide the information indicated below:

(b)(1) If the petition seeks health, genetic or social information, the petition shall state why the health history, genetic history or social history of the Bureau of Vital Statistics is insufficient for the purpose.

(b)(2) If the petition seeks identifying information, the petition shall state why the voluntary adoption registry of the Bureau of Vital Statistics is insufficient for the purpose.

(c) The court may order the petition served on any person having an interest in the petition, including the placement agency, the attorney handling a private placement, or the birth parents. If the court orders the petition served on any person whose identity is confidential, the court shall proceed in a manner that gives that person notice and the opportunity to be heard without revealing that person's identity or location.

(d) The court shall determine whether the petitioner has shown good cause and whether the reasons for disclosure outweigh the reasons for non-disclosure.

(e) If the court grants the petition, the court shall permit the petitioner to inspect and copy only those records that serve the purpose of the petition. The order shall expressly permit the petitioner to inspect and copy such records.

(f) The clerk of the court shall reseal the records after the petitioner has inspected and copied them.

 

 

Rule 108. Objection to court commissioner's recommendation.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 11/1/2023

(a) A recommendation of a court commissioner is the order of the court until modified by the court. A party may file a written objection to the recommendation within 14 days after the recommendation is made in open court or, if the court commissioner takes the matter under advisement, within 14 days after the minute entry of the recommendation is served. A judge’s counter-signature on the commissioner’s recommendation does not affect the review of an objection.

(b) The objection must identify succinctly and with particularity the findings of fact, the conclusions of law, or the part of the recommendation to which the objection is made and state the relief sought. The memorandum in support of the objection must explain succinctly and with particularity why the findings, conclusions, or recommendation are incorrect. The time for filing, length and content of memoranda, affidavits, and request to submit for decision are as stated for motions in Rule 7.

(c) If there has been a substantial change of circumstances since the commissioner’s recommendation, the judge may, in the interests of judicial economy, consider new evidence. Otherwise, any evidence, whether by proffer, testimony or exhibit, not presented to the commissioner shall not be presented to the judge.

(d)(1) The judge may hold a hearing on any objection.

(d)(2) If the hearing before the commissioner was held under Utah Code Title 26B, Chapter 5, Part3, Utah State Hospital and Other Mental Health Facilities, Utah Code Title 78B, Chapter 7, Protective Orders, or on an order to show cause for the enforcement of a judgment, any party has the right, upon request, to present testimony and other evidence on genuine issues of material fact.

(d)(3) If the hearing before the commissioner was in a domestic relations matter other than a cohabitant abuse protective order, any party has the right, upon request:

(d)(3)(A) to present testimony and other evidence on genuine issues of material fact relevant to custody; and

(d)(3)(B) to a hearing at which the judge may require testimony or proffers of testimony on genuine issues of material fact relevant to issues other than custody.

(e) If a party does not request a hearing, the judge may hold a hearing or review the record of evidence, whether by proffer, testimony or exhibit, before the commissioner.

(f) The judge will make independent findings of fact and conclusions of law based on the evidence, whether by proffer, testimony or exhibit, presented to the judge, or, if there was no hearing before the judge, based on the evidence presented to the commissioner.

 

 

Rule 109. Injunction in certain domestic relations cases.
Rule printed on June 24, 2024 at 1:18 pm. Go to https://www.utcourts.gov/rules for current rules.
Effective: 1/1/0021

(a) Actions in which a domestic injunction enters. Unless the court orders otherwise, in an action for divorce, annulment, temporary separation, custody, parent time, support, or paternity, the court will enter an injunction when the initial petition is filed. Only the injunction’s applicable provisions will govern the parties to the action.

(b) General provisions.

(1) If the action concerns the division of property then neither party may transfer, encumber, conceal, or dispose of any property of either party without the written consent of the other party or an order of the court, except in the usual course of business or to provide for the necessities of life.

(2) Neither party may, through electronic or other means, disturb the peace of, harass, or intimidate the other party.

(3) Neither party may commit domestic violence or abuse against the other party or a child.

(4) Neither party may use the other party’s name, likeness, image, or identification to obtain credit, open an account for service, or obtain a service.

(5) Neither party may cancel or interfere with telephone, utility, or other services used by the other party.

(6) Neither party may cancel, modify, terminate, change the beneficiary, or allow to lapse for voluntary nonpayment of premiums, any policy of health insurance, homeowner's or renter's insurance, automobile insurance, or life insurance without the written consent of the other party or pursuant to further order of the court.

(c) Provisions regarding a minor child. The following provisions apply when a minor child is a subject of the petition.

(1) Neither party may engage in non-routine travel with the child without the written consent of the other party or an order of the court unless the following information has been provided to the other party:

(A) an itinerary of travel dates and destinations;

(B) how to contact the child or traveling party; and

(C) the name and telephone number of an available third person who will know the child's location.

(2) Neither party may do the following in the presence or hearing of the child:

(A) demean or disparage the other party;

(B) attempt to influence a child’s preference regarding custody or parent time; or

(C) say or do anything that would tend to diminish the love and affection of the child for the other party, or involve the child in the issues of the petition.

(3) Neither party may make parent time arrangements through the child.

(4) When the child is under the party’s care, the party has a duty to use best efforts to prevent third parties from doing what the parties are prohibited from doing under this order or the party must remove the child from those third parties.

(d) Service. The court will serve the injunction on the petitioner at the time the petition is filed. The petitioner must provide the respondent with a copy of the injunction as entered by the court through any means reasonably calculated to give notice.

(e) When the injunction is binding. The injunction is binding

(1) on the petitioner upon filing the initial petition; and

(2) on the respondent after filing of the initial petition and upon receipt of a copy of the injunction as entered by the court.

(f) When the injunction terminates. The injunction remains in effect until the final decree is entered, the petition is dismissed, the parties otherwise agree in a writing signed by all parties, or further order of the court.

(g) Modifying or dissolving the injunction. A party may move to modify or dissolve the injunction.

(1) Prior to a responsive pleading being filed, the court shall determine a motion to modify or dissolve the injunction as expeditiously as possible. The moving party must serve the nonmoving party at least 48 hours before a hearing.

(2) After a responsive pleading is filed, a motion to modify or to dissolve the injunction is governed by Rule 7 or Rule 101, as applicable.

(h) Separate conflicting order. Any separate order governing the parties or their minor children will control over conflicting provisions of this injunction.

(i) Applicability. This rule applies to all parties other than the Office of Recovery Services.